Infrastructure, programs, and policies to increase bicycling: an international review

Source: Preventive Medicine

The objective of this paper is to assess existing research on the effects of various interventions on levels of bicycling. Interventions include infrastructure (e.g. bike lanes and parking), integration with public transport, education and marketing programs, bicycle access programs, and legal issues. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and non-reviewed research identified 139 studies. Study methodologies varied considerably in type and quality, with few meeting rigorous standards. Secondary data were gathered for fourteen case study cities that adopted multiple interventions. Many studies show positive associations between specific interventions and levels of bicycling. The fourteen case studies show that almost all cities adopting comprehensive packages of interventions experienced large increases in the number of bicycle trips and share of people bicycling. Most of the evidence examined in this review supports the crucial role of public policy in encouraging bicycling. Substantial increases in bicycling require an integrated package of many different, complementary interventions, including infrastructure provision and pro-bicycle programs, as well as supportive land use planning and restrictions on car use.

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