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Bicycle & Pedestrian Program

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The Bicycle & Pedestrian Program of the Federal Highway Administration's Office of Human and Natural Environment, promotes bicycle and pedestrian transportation accessibility, use, and safety.
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Road Diet Conversions: A Synthesis of Safety Research

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The primary purpose of this review is to assess the available evidence regarding the safety effectiveness of reductions in the number of motorized traffic lanes, widely known as road diet conversions.
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An Overview and Recommendations of High-Visibility Crosswalk Marking Styles

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
This paper examines the past and current research on crosswalk marking design and explores he best types of marking patterns under various traffic and roadway conditions.
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Costs for Pedestrian and Bicycle Infrastructure Improvements

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC), Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Active Living Research Program, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This document is intended to provide meaningful estimates of infrastructure costs for pedestrian and bicycle treatments in states and cities across the country.
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Testing and Evaluation of Pedestrian Sensors

Source: Southwest Region University Transportation Center
The main objective of this study was to evaluate sensors for use in a pedestrian safety test bed in College Station, TX.
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Costs for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Infrastructure Improvements Summary Report

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC), Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Active Living Research Program, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This report summarizes a recent effort to collect cost information for a variety of pedestrian and bicycle countermeasures.
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NACTO Urban Street Design Guide

Source: National Associtation of City Transportation Officials (NACTO)
The Urban Street Design Guide charts the principles and practices of the nation's foremost engineers, planners, and designers working in cities today.
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Guide for Maintaining Pedestrian Facilities for Enhanced Safety - Research Report

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This research report provides guidance for maintaining pedestrian facilities with the primary goal of increasing safety and mobility.
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A Guide for Maintaining Pedestrian Facilities for Enhanced Safety

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This resource provides guidance for maintaining pedestrian facilities with the primary goal of increasing safety and mobility.
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Effect of Gate Skirts on Pedestrian Behavior at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings

Source: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)
The purpose of this evaluation was to determine if the addition of gate skirting would result in fewer pedestrian crossing violations after the gates began to descend.
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Bicycle-Friendly Cities – The Relevance of Urban Form and Infrastructure

Source: Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI)
This report analyzes the extent to which urban form and the design of the transport system can explain the level of cycling.
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Pedestrians’ Valuations of Footpaths

Source: Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI)
This report considers how cost-benefit analyses can explain the extent to which different improvements in the walking environment can affect people's decisions to walk on certain routes.
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At the Frontiers of Cycling

Source: World Transport Policy & Practice
The focus in each case study is on the wide range of integrated, mutually supporting policies and programs that are used to promote cycling.
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A Technical Guide for Conducting Bicycle Safety Assessments for California Communities

Source: University of California, Berkeley Institute of Transportation Studies
This document describes the California Bicycle Safety Assessment process and provides guidelines for evaluators to conduct BSAs.
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A Technical Guide for Conducting Pedestrian Safety Assessments for California Communities

Source: University of California, Berkeley Institute of Transportation Studies
The first edition of this guidebook was based on material contained in the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) report, Pedestrian Road Safety Audit Guidelines and Prompt Lists (July 2007).
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Accessible Rights-of-Way: A Design Guide

Source: United States Access Board
This design guide is based on provisions in the ADA Accessibility Guidelines, which requires facilities to be designed and construceted to be readily accessible to and usable by people with diabilities.
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Evaluation of Bicycle-Related Roadway Measures: A Summary of Available Research

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
This document represents an effort to compile all known research on the effect of the bicycle safety countermeasures contained in BIKESAFE.
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Recommended Bicycle Lane Widths for Various Roadway Characteristics

Source: National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP)
This report provides bicycle lane width guidance for traffic and design engineers in areas where bicycle lanes are being considered and implemented.
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Bike Lanes, On-Street Parking and Business

Source: The Clean Air Partnership
The purpose of this study is to understand and estimate the importance of on-street parking to business on Bloor Street in the Annex neighbourhood of Toronto.
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Berkeley, CA: Bicycle Boulevard Design Tools and Guidelines

Source: City of Berkeley
This report describes the process by which Bicycle Boulevards were enhanced through the incorporation of specific tools and strategies.
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Advantages of Bike Lanes

Source: Tucson-Pima County Bicycle Advisory Committee
This document contains a list of bike lane benefits to bicycles, drivers, and pedestrians.
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Technical Handbook of Bikeway Design

Source: Velo Quebec
This third edition, revised and expanded, contains an impressive amount of essential information to successfully plan and create effective, efficient facilities.
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Designing for Pedestrians

Source: Washington State Department of Transportation
Washington State's Designing for Pedestrians website offers assistance in the form of research materials, frequently asked questions, and outlines of design standards.
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Context Sensitive Solutions in Designing major Urban Thoroughfares for Walkable Communities

Source: Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE)
This report provides guidance and demonstrates for practitioners how context sensitive solutions (CSS) cocepts and principles may be applied in roadway improvement projects that are consistent with their physical settings.
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Making Walking and Cycling Safer

Source: Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 54, No. 3
This document outlines programs in Germany and the Netherlands that have improved mobility through non-motorized modes of transportation.
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Design Guidance for Channelized Right-Turn Lanes

Source: National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP)
This report develops guidance for channelized right-turn lanes based on balancing the needs of motor vehicles, pedestrians, and bicycles.
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Road Diet Informational Guide

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This guide includes safety, operational, and other considerations from research and practice, and guides readers through the decision-making process to determine if Road Diets are a good fit for a certain corridor.
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Low Cost Interventions to Encourage Cycling

Source: Austroads
This report contains 15 case studies showcasing low cost interventions that have successfully encouraged cycling in Australia and New Zealand.
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Cycling Infrastructure

Source: Austroads
This report contains 29 case studies showcasing innovative Australian and New Zealand urban and regional bicycle infrastructure.
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A Method for Estimating Pedestrian Volume for Street Intersections in San Francisco

Source: Department of Geography and Human Environmental Studies - San Francisco State University
This paper presents a model for estimating pedestrian volume in San Francisco, and examines the built environment at multiple geographic scales and included pedestrian activities of all potential trip purposes.
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Evaluation of Pedestrian Countdown Signals in Montgomery County, Maryland

Source: Transportation Research Board
Pedestrian countdown signals installed at five intersections in Montgomery County, Maryland, were evaluated with a before-and-after study.
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Toolbox of Countermeasures and Their Potential Effectiveness for Pedestrian Crashes

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This issue brief documents estimates of the crash reduction that might be expected if a specific countermeasure or group of countermeasures is implemented with respect to pedestrian crashes. The crash reduction estimates are presented as Crash Reduction Factors (
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New York City Department of Transportation: Pedestrians & Sidewalks

Source: New York City Department of Transportation
Provides valuable information about pedestrian services and facilities around New York City.
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Evaluating the Economic Benefits of Nonmotorized Transportation

Source: John A Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, US Department of Transportation (USDOT), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This report reviews potential methods for analyzing these different economic benefits at the project, neighborhood, and larger community scale, highlighting case studies from four agencies.
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Pedestrian and Bicycle Facility Design Resource Index 2

Source:
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Pedestrian and Bicycle Facility Design Resource Index 3

Source:
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Walkability Checklist for Teens

Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Everyone walks and there are lots of benefits, like improved fitness, cleaner air, less risk of certain health problems, and a greater sense of community. Walking needs to be safe and easy. Using this tool,
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Walkability Checklist for Teens

Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Everyone walks and there are lots of benefits, like improved fitness, cleaner air, less risk of certain health problems, and a greater sense of community. Walking needs to be safe and easy. Using this tool,
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Interim Report to the U.S. Congress on the Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program SAFETEA-LU Section 1807

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This interim report summarizes progress and initial results of the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) and the four pilot communities' participation in the Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program (
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Bikeability Checklist for Teens

Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Riding a bike is fun. It's a great way to get around and to get your daily dose of physical activity. It's good for the environment, and it can save you money. No wonder many communities are encouraging people to ride their bicycles more often!
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Separated Bike Lane Planning and Design Guide

Source: FHWA
This Separated Bike Lane Planning and Design Guide outlines planning considerations for separated bike lanes (also sometimes called "cycle tracks" or "protected bike lanes") and provides a menu of design optionscovering typical one and two-
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Towards Effective Design Treatment for Right Turns at Intersections with Bicycle Traffic

Source: Oregon Department of Transportation
The ultimate aim of this research was to provide useful design guidance to potentially mitigate right-turning vehicle-bicycle crashes at critical intersection configurations.
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Understanding Interactions between Drivers and Pedestrian Features at Signalized Intersections

Source: USF Center for Urban Transportation Research
This project aimed to explore driver behaviors at signalized intersections with four identified pedestrian features by using an innovative safety data source, the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study (
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Case Studies in Delivering Safe, Comfortable, and Connected Pedestrian and Bicycle Networks (Volume I)

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA, UNC Highway Safety Research Center (HSRC)
This report provides an overview of pedestrian and bicycle network principles and highlights examples from communities across the country.
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Improving Pedestrian Safety at Unsignalized Crossings

Source: Transit Cooperative Research Program and National Cooperative Highway Research Program
TCRP Report 112/NCHRP Report 562: Improving Pedestrian Safety at Unsignalized Crossings will be of interest to state, county, and city traffic engineers; transit agencies; roadway designers; and urban planners,
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BikeHAWK: Adapting the pedestrian hybrid beacon to aid bicyclists crossing busy streets

Source: Richard Nassi, Diahn Swartz, Ann Chanecka, Paul Casertano, and Gabe Thum
This case study explains Tucson's experience with the BikeHAWK beacon, which uses a combination of MUTCD approved signs, signals, and markings to guide bicyclists through the intersection of residential and arterial streets.
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Methodology for Linking Greenways and Trails with Public Transportation in Florida

Source: National Center for Transportation Research (NCTR)
The purpose of this research was to provide a methodology to evaluate how intermodal connections between public transportation and public trails can improve livability in Florida communities.
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Incorporating On-Road Bicycle Networks into Resurfacing Projects

Source: Federal Highway Adminstration (FHWA)
This workbook provides recommendations for how roadway agencies can integrate bicycle facilities into their resurfacing program.
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2016 State of Bicycling

Source: City of Memphis
This report outlines some of the key accomplishments for bicycling the City of Memphis achieved since it began improving conditions for persons riding bikes in 2010. A recap of recently constructed bicycle facilities is included along with other noteworthy milestones such as the City'
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Vision Zero Cities 2016

Source: Transporation Alternatives
Vision Zero Cities features insights from an international braintrust of experts in the public and private sector.
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Bike Lane Evaluation Guide

Source: Somerville (MA) Bicycle Committee
This design guide is intended to aid with the development of bike lane design relative to the surrounding urban context.
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Bicycling and Walking in the United States 2016

Source: Alliance for Biking and Walking
The Alliance for Biking & Walking has been tracking data across the U.S. through the Benchmarking Project since 2003. Every two years, the project team releases an updated report with the most recent data available,
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Advancing Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety: A Primer for Highway Safety Professionals

Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
This primer is a reference for integrated and improved pedestrian and bicycle safety, summarizing the most promising infrastructure and behavioral programs addressing specific safety problems and highlighting implementation strategies.
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International Scan Summary Report on Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety and Mobility

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO), National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP)
This report presents the findings of a team of transportation officials who visited five countries in Europe to identify and assess effective approaches to improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety and mobility.
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Pursuing Equity in Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This white paper discusses ways transportation planners and others can work to incorporate the pedestrian and bicycle needs of traditionally underserved communities into their transportation planning.
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Understanding How the Built Environment Around TTA Stops Affects Ridership

Source: Department of City and Regional Planning, UNC-Chapel Hill
"This study determines the characteristics of urban development that related to Triangle Transit Authority (TTA) bus ridership levels in the Triangle region of North Carolina."
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Guidebook for Developing Pedestrian and Bicycle Performance Measures

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This guidebook is intended to help communities develop performance measures that can fully integrate pedestrian and bicycle planning in ongoing performance management activities.
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Method of Improving Pedestrian Safety Proactively with Geographic Information Systems

Source: Transportation Research Record
"The proactive data integration technique developed in this study was applied to pedestrian safety problems on a college campus, aiding the process of planning and implementing various countermeasures related to education,
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Bike Network Mapping Idea Book

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This resource highlights ways that different communities have mapped their existing and proposed bicycle networks.
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An accident waiting to happen

Source: Accident Analysis and Prevention
"There are about 75,000 pedestrian crashes in the United States each year. Approximately 5000 of these crashes are fatal, accounting for 12% of all roadway deaths. On college campuses, pedestrian exposure and crash-
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Improving Pedestrian and Bicycle Connectivity During Rehabilitation of Existing Bridges

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC), Fehr & Peers Transportation Consultants
This paper highlight opportunities for enhancing pedestrian and bicycle accommodations during rehabilitation of existing bridges.
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Safer Cycling through Improved Infrastructure

Source: American Journal of Public Health
This article explores trends in bicycle safety in several North American cities to link infrastructure with safety improvements.
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Case Studies in Delivering Safe, Comfortable and Connected Pedestrian and Bicycle Networks (Volume II)

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), UNC Highway Safety Research Center (HSRC)
This is the second volume of a report documenting network-enhancing projects from around the country.
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Forecasting Pedestrian and Bicycle Travel Demands Using Travel Demand Model and Mode Share/Trip Length Data

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
In order to forecast pedestrian and bicycle usage on the Columbia River Crossing project, agencies were able to plan for and accommodate walking and bicycling on the bridge.
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Model Design Manual for Living Streets

Source: Ryan Snyder Associates
This manual focuses on all users and all modes, seeking to achieve balanced street design that accommodates cars while ensuring that pedestrians, cyclists and transit users can travel safely and comfortably.
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Shared Space: Safe or Dangerous?

Source:
This paper examines the philosophy of shared space and the effects of its implementation on traffic safety.
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Sense and Nonsense About Shared Space

Source:
This paper examines the traffic safety improvements and potential conflicts associated with shared space implementation in Germany and the Netherlands.
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Retrofitting the Suburbs to Increase Walking

Source: University of California Transportation Center (UCTC)
Walking travel and land use patterns vary substantially within the South Bay. Analyzing the correlates of walking provides insight into ways to retrofit auto-oriented suburbs for more pedestrian travel.
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Proven Safety Countermeasures

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safety
This website provides documentation and information on several countermeasures that have shown to be effective in improving roadway safety.
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Assessment of Driver Yield Rates Pre- and Post-RRFB Installation in Bend, Oregon

Source: Oregon Department of Transportation
This report evaluates the effects of the installation of two Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacons (RRFB) on driver yielding behavior in Bend, Oregon.
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Better Streets, Better Cities

Source: Institute for Transportation & Development Policy (ITDP), Environmental Planning Collaborative (EPC)
This manual is intended for planners, designers, engineers, government officials and citizens who are interested in improving the quality of urban environments and the character of streets in our cities.
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Signalized Intersection Enhancements that Benefit Pedestrians

Source: America Walks, Fehr and Peers
This resource summarizes treatments for improving pedestrian safety at signalized intersections.
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Bicycle Facilities on Road Segments and Intersections of Distributor Roads

Source: Institute for Road Safety Research (SWOV)
The issue of separating bicycle facilities from motorized traffic is discussed, with both pros and cons considered.
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Going on a Road Diet

Source: Public Roads Magazine
Lane reduction can increase safety for pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorists while improving the quality of life in downtowns across the country.
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Safety and Operational Analysis of 4-lane to 3-lane Conversions (Road Diets) in Michigan

Source: Michigan State University
This paper provides an evaluation of road diet treatments in several locations in Michigan.
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Integration of Bicycling and Walking Facilities into the Infrastructure of Urban Communities

Source: Mineta Transportaton Institute
This project highlights best practices and identifies program characteristics associated with high levels of nonmotorized travel, with an emphasis on bicyclists and pedestrians.
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NACTO Urban Bikeway Design Guide

Source: National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO)
The purpose of the NACTO Urban Bikeway Design Guide is to provide cities with state-of-the-practice solutions that can help create complete streets that are safe and enjoyable for bicyclists.
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New Jersey Safety along Railroads: Short-Term Action Plan

Source: New Jersey Department of Transportation
This action plan was developed to improve pedestrian safety near rail corridors in New Jersey.
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Evaluation of Alternative Pedestrian Traffic Control Devices

Source: Oregon Department of Transportation
This report summarizes a field study and survey of two treatments in Oregon: Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacons and Pedestrian Hybrid beacons.
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Proven Countermeasures for Pedestrian Safety

Source: Public Roads Magazine, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
FHWA and many State DOTs are relying on the demonstrated effectiveness of medians and walkways to help protect those on foot.
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Community Design and the Incidence of Crashes Involving Pedestrians and Motorists Aged 75 and Over

Source: University Transportation Center for Mobility, Texas Transportation Institute (TTI)
This study employs a series of negative binomial regression models to understand how urban form may affect the incidence of total and killed-or-severely-injured (KSI) crashes involving older drivers and pedestrians.
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Low-Stress Bicycling and Network Connectivity

Source: Mineta Transportation Institute
The objective of this study is to develop measures of low-stress connectivity that can be used to evaluate and guide bicycle network planning.
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Safety Effects of In-Roadway Warning Lights or “Flashing Crosswalk” Treatment

Source: UNC Highway Safety Research Center (HSRC)
This review of nine before-after evaluation studies indicates that this treatment is not a panacea for all problem crosswalk locations.
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Sharing the Road: Optimizing Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety and Vehicle Mobility

Source: Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT)
This research initiative combines the results of five reports to provide recommendations for improving the multimodal aspects of the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) transportation network.
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Lane Configuration Guide to Support Safe Bicycling and Vehicular Travel

Source: Kentucky Department of Transportation (DOT)
This guide shows potential lane configurations that support a Complete Street concept, allowing for safe, compatible traffic conditions for automobiles and bicycles.
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Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacons in St. Petersburg

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
This case study examines the installation of rectangular rapid flashing beacons (RRFB) in St. Petersburg, FL.
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A Summary of Design, Policies and Operational Characteristics for Shared Bicycle/Bus Lanes

Source: University of South Florida, Florida Department of Transportation
This report contains the results of an investigation of the design and operation of shared bicycle/bus lanes in municipalities in the United States and other countries.
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Cycling on Higher Speed Roads

Source: Austroads
This report investigates the provision of facilities for bicycles on high speed roads.
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Minimum Design Parameters for Cycle Connectivity

Source: New Zealand Transportation Agency
This report explores the relationship between lane/shoulder width and the likelihood of cyclists traversing the edge line into the motorized vehicle stream.
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How Far, By Which Route, and Why?

Source: Mineta Transportation Institute
The report examines the distance pedestrians walk to rail transit stations and the environmental factors that influence their route choice.
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Shoulder Rumble Strips and Bicyclists

Source: New Jersey Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This report provides a comprehensive review of existing research on the safety impacts of rumble strips to bicycles.
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Nickerson Street Road Diet

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Nickerson Street in Seattle, WA, was a difficult roadway for pedestrians to cross because it had four travel lanes and few pedestrian crossings.
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New Zealand Pedestrian Crossing Facility Calculation Tool

Source: Land Transport New Zealand
This tool can be used to calculate delay, safety, and benefit cost for potential pedestrian facilities in New Zealand.
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New Zealand Non-Motorised User Review Procedures

Source: Land Transport New Zealand
This process ensures that the needs of people who wish to walk, cycle or, where relevant, ride a horse, are considered when works are being planned and designed.
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Evaluating Pedestrian Safety Improvements

Source: Michigan Department of Transportation, Western Michigan University, T.Y. Lin International
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of new pedestrian countermeasure installations on pedestrian safety to assist in informing future pedestrian safety initiatives.
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New Zealand Community Street Reviews

Source: New Zealand Land Transport
This survey combines an audit process with rating scales that indicate the level of service perceived by the users and the relative importance of fixing the defects identified.
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Smart Growth and Economic Success

Source: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
This report is the first in a series from EPA's Smart Growth Program designed to inform developers, businesses, local government, and other groups about the benefits of smart growth development.
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Guide Information for Pedestrian Facilities

Source: Austroads
This report identifies areas where additional advice and guidance on pedestrian facilities can be incorporated into the Austroads Guides.
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Pedestrians and Cyclists on Major Roads

Source: Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI)
This report reviews possible pedestrian and bicycle solutions along roads with speeds between 70 and 90 kilometers per hour.
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Feasibility of Using GPS to Track Bicycle Lane Positioning

Source: University of Minnesota Center for Transportation Studies
The objective of this research was to determine whether smartphone GPS units or enhanced GPS units could be used to track and map the location of cyclists on streets.
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Evaluating Complete Streets

Source: Victoria Transport Policy Institute
This report discusses reasons to implement complete streets and how it relates to other planning innovations.
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Walkability, Transit Access, and Traffic Exposure for Low-Income Residents With Subsidized Housing

Source: American Journal of Public Health
This paper examines the walkability, transit access and traffic exposure issues faced by individuals living in subsidized housing.
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Informational Report on Lighting Design for Midblock Crosswalks

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This report provides information on lighting parameters and design criteria that should be considered when installing fixed roadway lighting for midblock crosswalks.
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Accessible Pedestrian Signals: A Guide to Best Practices

Source: National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP)
Provides training information for engineers, orientation and mobility specialists, and signal technicians on when, where, and how to install accessible pedestrian signals (APS).
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Pedestrian and Bicyclist Intersection Safety Indices

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This User Guide provides practitioners with instructions for applying the Ped/Bike ISI to their local intersections.
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Re: Streets

Source: Re: Streets Initiative
re: Streets is a multi-disciplinary collaboration focused on the planning, design and construction of streets as a method for improving our built environment.
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Street Design Guidelines for Healthy Neighborhoods

Source: Walkable Communities, Inc.
Reflecting the current shifts in thinking about neighborhood and street design, these guidelines identify ways to design new neighborhoods that will be more interactive, walkable, enjoyable and livable.
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The National Bicycling and Walking Study

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This report draws upon all of the work completed until 1994 in outlining a plan of action to promote bicycling and walking as viable transportation options for more Americans.
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Emergency Vehicles and Traffic Calming

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Clark County needed traffic calming measures that would slow speeds on neighborhood streets, yet accommodate emergency response vehicles.
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Harold Street Traffic Calming

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Traffic calming on SE Harold in Portland, Oregon, has been very successful and neighborhood livability has been enhanced.
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Exclusive Pedestrian Phasing

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The City of Beverly Hills implemented an exclusive pedestrian signal at busy downtown intersections to greater reduce the number of pedestrian and vehicle conflicts.
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Active Transportation for America

Source: Rails to Trails Conservancy
Investment in a more diverse transportation system - one that provides viable choices to walk and bike - will lead to a far more efficient use of transportation resources.
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Interface for Cycling Expertise

Source: Interface for Cycling Expertise (I-CE)
Interface for cycling expertise (I-CE) is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization, founded to answer the ever-growing international demand for cycle policy expertise.
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The Truth about Lane Widths

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
What if we could narrow the lanes on a roadway without adversely impacting the operations of the roadway? This case study addresses current research on lane widths.
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Third Street Promenade

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The transformation of a pedestrian mall in Santa Monica, California.
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Evaluation of Lane Reduction "Road Diet" Measures and Their Effects on Crashes and Injuries

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This study examines the safety benefits of road diets.
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Institute of Transportation Engineers Traffic Calming Library

Source: Institute of Transportation Engineers, Federal Highway Administration
The Traffic Calming Library contains a searchable database of reports, articles and other documents related to traffic calming. In some cases the full publication is available online and in others only a source listing or abstract is available.
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Cycling for Everyone

Source: Transportation Research Record
This paper investigates how bicycling can be promoted as a safe and feasible means of transport for everyone and for all trip purposes.
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Winthrop Street Shared Street

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The transformation of Winthrop Street in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
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Cycling Safety on Bikeways versus Roads

Source: Transportation Quarterly
This article compares the relative safety of cycling on traffic-separated bike lanes and bike paths compared to cycling on roadways in mixed traffic.
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Accommodating Pedestrians in Work Zones

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This brochure provides some helpful guidelines that can be used to accommodate pedestrians in work zones.
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Nebraska Avenue Road Diet

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
A variety of countermeasures were used to increase safety in one of the most dangerous roadway corridors in Tampa, Florida.
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Pedestrian Improvements at Jackson Avenue and the Pulaski Bridge

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Modifications of Jackson Avenue and the Pulaski Bridge in Queens improved pedestrian safety, circulation and access.
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National Bicycling and Walking Study - Ten Year Report

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC), The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT)
The US Department of Transportation released this 10-year Status Report to track its progress and activities towards implementing the National Walking and Bicycling Study.
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Bicycle Parking Guidelines

Source: Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals
The Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals pulled together a task force to develop recommendations on bicycle rack selection, location and placement.
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Guide to Promoting Bicycling on Federal Lands

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This report provides guidance to Federal land managers on how to promote bicycling.
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Safety Effectiveness of the HAWK Pedestrian Crossing Treatment

Source: Federal Highway Administration
A before-after study of the safety performance of the HAWK was conducted.
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PEDSAFE: Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System is intended to provide practitioners with the latest information available for improving the safety and mobility of those who walk. The online tools provide the user with a list of possible engineering,
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Walkability Checklist

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center
Includes questions to evaluate a neighborhood's walkability as well as solutions to a neighborhood's potential problems.
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GIS Tools for Improving Pedestrian and Bike Safety

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This TechBrief discusses the use of GIS software to improve pedestrian and bicycle safety.
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Roundabouts: An Informational Guide

Source: Turner Fairbank Highway Safety Research Center
The guidance supplied in this document is based on established U.S. and international practices and is supplemented by recent research.
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Pedestrian Synthesis Report

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The following document summarizes research on pedestrian safety in the United States with a focus on crash characteristics and the safety effects of various roadway features and traffic-control devices;
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GIS-Based Crash Referencing and Analysis System

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This paper summarizes efforts to develop a crash referencing and analysis system within GIS.
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Passive Pedestrian Detection at Unsignalized Crossings

Source: Oregon State University, DKS Associates, Federal Highway Administration
This report discusses a project conducted by the City of Portland to evaluate available sensor technologies for passive pedestrian detection, thedesign of a crossing to utilize these sensor technologies,
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Ultra-Violet Headlamp Technology for Nighttime Enhancement of Fluorescent Roadway Delineation and Pedestrian Visibility

Source: Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center, Center for Applied Research, Federal Highway Administration
This study reports on the the first extensive field evaluation of the pedestrian safety benefits provided by UV headlamps.
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Americans with Disabilities Act and the Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (ADA-ABA)

Source: United States Access Board
This document contains scoping and technical requirements for accessibility to sites, facilities, buildings, and elements by individuals with disabilities, particularly as applies to walking surfaces.
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Pedestrian and Bicycle Data Collection in United States Communities

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This study presents methods for collection of pedestrian and bicycle data.
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Designing for Active Transportation

Source: Active Living Research
This research summary gives a synopsis of the current state of peer-reviewed research into what makes a community "walkable" or "bikeable," so people can get physical activity as part of their daily routine -
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Law Enforcement Pedestrian Safety

Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
This manual is designed as a resource for police agencies needing to solve unfamiliar traffic safety problems.
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Guide for the Planning, Design and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities

Source: The American Association of State and Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
The purpose of this guide is to provide guidance on the planning, design, and operation of pedestrian facilities along streets and highways.
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Designing to Reduce Childhood Obesity

Source: Active Living Research
This research summary gives a synopsis of the current state of peer-reviewed research into what environmental factors may be related to young people's eating and physical activity patterns.
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Ice, snow and slippery sidewalks: For many seniors, winter is "hip season"

Source: University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center
This article focuses on hazardous winter walking conditions and the effect they have on the senior population.
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Guidebook on Methods to Estimate Non-Motorized Travel: Overview of Methods

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This guidebook provides a means for practitioners to better understand and estimate bicycle and pedestrian travel and to address transportation planning needs. The guidebook describes and compares the various methods that can be used to forecast non-
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Federal Highway Administration University Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The FHWA University Course contains modular resource material that is intended for use in university courses on bicycle and pedestrian transportation.
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Bicycle and Pedestrian Data: Sources, Needs, & Gaps

Source: USDOT and Bureau of Transportation Statistics
This review of existing data and data needs was based on outreach to user groups that included planners, advocates, and researchers at federal, state, and local government agencies, universities, and nonprofit organizations.
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National Safety Council Partnership for a Walkable America

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Institute for Transportation Engineers, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
This site provides links to the International Walk to School website, a Walkability Checklist, and the ITE Pedestrian Project Awards.
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A Comparative Analysis of Bicycle Lanes Versus Wide Curb Lanes

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This document provides a comparison between Bike Lanes and Wide Curve Lanes, specifically in regards to bicycle and automobile interactions at intersections, and offers recommendations.
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Transportation Research Board

Source: Transportation Research Board
The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. The site provides a wealth of documents online as well as books and journals for sale.
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Evaluation of a Combined Bicycle Lane/Right Turn Lane in Eugene, Oregon

Source: Federal Highway Administration
Innovative, on-street bicycle treatments are now routinely being implemented. This is the third in a series of reports for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) pertaining to evaluation of these innovative bicycling treatments.
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Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon Guide

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safety
This guide documents best practices for selecting locations for and installing pedestrian hybrid beacons, including a case study.
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Bicycle Compatibility Index

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This research report presents a bicycle compatibility index (BCI) methodology that can be used by practitioners to evaluate the capability of specific roadways to accommodate both motorists and bicyclists.
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Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD)

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) defines the standards used by road managers nationwide to install and maintain traffic control devices on all streets and highways.
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Characteristics of Emerging Road Users and Their Safety

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This study identifies the operational characteristics of an increasingly diverse group of trail and other nonmotorized transportation users.
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Pedestrian Safety Countermeasure Deployment Project

Source: Federal Highway Administration
In 2002, the Federal Highway Administration awarded grants to the cities of San Francisco, Las Vegas and Miami to examine and map out their pedestrian crashes and develop a plan for deploying and evaluating various pedestrian safety countermeasures in high crash &
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Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities

Source: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
This guide provides information on the development of new facilities to enhance and encourage safe bicycle travel. Planning considerations, design and construction guidelines, and operation and maintenance recommendations are included.
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Characteristics Related to Midblock Pedestrian-Vehicle Crashes and Potential Treatments

Source:
The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of the characteristics of midblock pedestrian crashes for use in determining appropriate safety treatments. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board,
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Guidebook on Methods to Estimate Non-Motorized Travel: Supporting Documentation

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This guidebook provides a means for practitioners to better understand and estimate bicycle and pedestrian travel and to address transportation planning needs. Supporting Documentation provides substantially more detail on the methods including purpose,
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Dutch Institute for Road Safety Research (SWOV)

Source: Institute for Road Safety Research (SWOV)
SWOV is an independent, scientific institute. SWOV's knowledge is public information and is made available to anyone who wants it, and is professionally involved in traffic and road safety in the Netherlands.
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Capacity Analysis of Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This document contains both new and revised procedures for analyzing various types of exclusive and mixed-use bicycle facilities. Procedures are recommended to determine the Level of Service (LOS) for bicycle facilities based on previous domestic and international bicycle operations research conducted to date.
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Improving Conditions for Bicycling and Walking

Source: Rails to Trails Conservancy, Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This "Best Practices" report provides information on some outstanding pedestrian and bicycle projects that have been recognized for increasing walking and bicycling and improving user safety in communities across the United States.
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Capacity Analysis of Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This document describes the effects of pedestrians and bicyclists on the capacity of signalized intersections. These procedures augment the existing Highway Capacity Manual signalized intersection Level of Service procedures for locations with substantial pedestrian and/
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Public Lighting for Safe and Attractive Pedestrian Areas

Source: NZ Transport Agency
This report adds to the understanding of public lighting for safe and attractive pedestrian areas
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International Synthesis Report: United Kingdom

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This is a review of recent research on pedestrian safety carried out in the United Kingdom. A comprehensive list of references is provided. The report covers many types of pedestrian facilities, the UK pedestrian safety record,
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Guidelines and Recommendations to Accommodate Older Drivers and Pedestrians

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This project updated, revised, and expanded the scope of the Older Driver Highway Design Handbook published by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) in 1998.
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Sight Line - Designing Streets for People with Low Vision

Source: Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment
A pioneering study that shows how better street design can transform life for people with low vision, helping them to become more confident and more mobile.
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International Synthesis Report: Canada

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report summarizes Canadian research on pedestrian safety.
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International Synthesis Report: Sweden

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report is a review of recent pedestrian safety research in Sweden (in particular) with some attention to similar research in other Scandinavian countries.
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Recommended Procedures for Testing and Evaluating Detectable Warning Systems

Source: Transportation Research Board
This report presents a set of recommended test methods for evaluating durability of detectable warning systems.
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International Synthesis Report: Netherlands

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report is a review of recent pedestrian safety research in the Netherlands. It addresses several topics, reporting findings and providing a comprehensive list of references.
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Improving Pedestrian Conditions on a High Traffic Arterial

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
San Francisco's 19th Avenue/Park Presidio Boulevard is a major multi-use transportation corridor with many issues including heavy traffic, difficult pedestrian crossings, and unwelcoming design features.
Read More >

 

International Synthesis Report: Australia

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report summarizes Australian research and activities regarding pedestrian safety.
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An Evaluation of 3D/4D Visualization: North & South Roosevelt Blvds. Key West, Florida

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) & Florida Department of Transportation
This CD-ROM documents the process that is involved in the use of 3D and 4D visualization technologies.
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Safety Effects of Cross-Section Design on Rural Multilane Highways

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This study examines the effects of various cross-section-related design elements on accident frequency and developed an accident prediction model for rural, multilane, nonfreeway highways.
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The Role of Public Policies in Promoting the Safety, Convenience, and Popularity of Cycling

Source: World Transport Policy and Practice
This article is a response to the critique by Heath Maddox that was published in the special issue on bicycling of WTPP (Volume 7, Number 3).
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Safe Kids Worldwide Global Road Safety

Source: Safe Kids Worldwide, United Nations
This report provides information on several Safe Kids Worldwide road safety programs in different countries. Summaries describe the particular problem to be treated, the solution, the program used, and outcomes.
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Phoenix School Safety Program

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Phoenix task force results in successful statewide program for improving pedestrian safety in school zones through education, enforcement, and multiple engineering measures.
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Synthesis of Active Traffic Management Experiences in Europe and the United States

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This report provides a compilation of lessons learned, experiences, operational results, and benefits associated with active traffic management applications.
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Regional Rail-Trail

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The American Tobacco Trail (ATT) is a 22+ mile shared-use path that begins in the City of Durham and extends through the Research Triangle region of North Carolina. The trail is located in a former railroad right-
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Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool (PBCAT)

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool (PBCAT) is a crash typing software product intended to assist state and local pedestrian/bicycle coordinators, planners and engineers with improving walking and bicycling safety through the development and analysis of a database containing details associated with crashes between motor vehicles and pedestrians or bicyclists.
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Crosswalk Marking Field Visibility Study

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The objective of this study was to investigate the relative daytime and nighttime visibility of three crosswalk marking patterns: transverse lines, continental, and bar pairs.
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An Evaluation of Illuminated Pedestrian Push Buttons in Windsor, Ontario

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This paper evaluates illuminated push buttons at four intersections in Windsor, Ontario. The research reported here is part of a larger national effort to evaluate the operational and safety effects of various pedestrian treatments:
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Pedestrian Crosswalk Case Studies

Source: Highway Safety Administration
The overall objective of the research was to determine the effect of crosswalk markings on driver and pedestrian behavior at unsignalized intersections.
Read More >

 

Trails for Transportation

Source: National Bicycle and Pedestrian Clearinghouse
File? This technical brief discusses the role of trails in the overall transportation network.
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Evaluation of Shared Lane Markings

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of several uses of shared lane pavement markings, specifically sharrow design, on operational and safety measures for bicyclists and motorists.
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Evaluation of Automated Pedestrian Detection at Signalized Intersections

Source: Federal Highway Administration
Automated pedestrian detection systems provide the means to detect the presence of pedestrians as they approach the curb prior to crossing the street, and then "call" the Walk signal without any action required on the part of the pedestrian.
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Pedestrian Facilities Users Guide

Source: Highway Safety Research Center
This guide provides useful information regarding walkable environments, pedestrian crashes and their countermeasures, and engineering improvements for pedestrians.
Read More >

 

Effects of Yellow Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacons on Yielding at Multilane Uncontrolled Crosswalks

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This study examined the effects of the RRFB at uncontrolled marked crosswalks.
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An Evaluation of Technologies for Automated Detection and Classification of Pedestrians and Bicylists

Source: Massachusetts Highway Department & Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The objective of this research was to identify and evaluate existing automated technologies that may accurately and effeciently detect, count, and classify non-motorized modes of transportation (i.e.
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An Analysis of Factors Contributing to "Walking Along Roadway" Crashes: Research Study and Guidelines for Sidewalks and Walkways

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This study for the Federal Highway Administration was conducted to determine the roadway, traffic, and socio-economic factors related to pedestrian "walking along roadway" crashes involving motor vehicles.
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Evaluation of HAWK Signal at Georgia Avenue and Hemlock Street, NW in the District of Columbia

Source: District Department of Transportation
A High-intensity Activated crossWalK (HAWK) signal was installed at an intersection in Washington DC to reduce incidences of pedestrian-vehicle conflicts as well as overall crashes involving pedestr
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Capacity Analysis of Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This document contains both new and revised procedures for analyzing various types of exclusive and mixed-use pedestrian facilities. It also includes a comprehensive set of recommended service measures of effectiveness,
Read More >

 

Methods of Increasing Pedestrian Safety at Right-Turn-on-Red Intersections (Final Report)

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The purpose of this study was to determine current motorist compliance to RTOR regulations, develop and test countermeasures for RTOR pedestrian accidents, and develop guidelines for prohibition of RTOR.
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Safety Effects of Marked vs Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The purpose of this study was to determine whether marked crosswalks at uncontrolled locations are safer than unmarked crosswalks under various traffic and roadway conditions. Another objective was to providerecommendations on how to provide safer crossings for pedestrians.
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Evaluation of Safety, Design, and Operation of Shared Use Paths

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The purpose of this project was to develop a level of service (LOS) estimation method for shared-use paths that overcomes previous limitations.
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The Effects of Innovative Pedestrian Signs at Unsignalized Locations: A Tale of Three Treatments

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This paper is part of a national-level research effort to evaluate the operational and safety effects of various pedestrian treatments, and summarizes past research in this field.
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Pedestrian Safety in Native America

Source: Federal Highway Administration
Since American Indians have the highest rates of pedestrian injury and fatality in the country, this study was performed to typify crashes among American Indians in the United States.
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Cycle Track Design and Implementation in Washington D.C.

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
A separated bicycle lane was created to provide alternative transportation options along 15th Street in Washington, DC.
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Indianapolis Cultural Trail

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center; Context Sensitive Solutions
City leaders wanted to make it easier for people to visit the Indianapolis's cultural districts, which were disconnected from the heart of downtown and didn't get the attention they merited. In a city with a successful linear park and trail system,
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Pedestrian Safety on Rural Highways

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The research described in this paper sought to identify the characteristics of rural pedestrian fatalities in ten states with above-average rates of rural pedestrian fatalities.
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An Evaluation of High-Visibility Crosswalk Treatment

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The overall objective was to evaluate the effect of a novel illuminated overhead crosswalk sign and high-visibility ladder style crosswalk markings on driver and pedestrian behavior at nonsignalized intersections in Clearwater,
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Pedsmart

Source: Highway Safety Research Center
Explores the recent developments in hardware and other technologies offering the potential of improving pedestrian safety and access by addressing specific problems associated with crossing the street.
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Planning Complete Streets for an Aging America

Source: AARP
This report offers refinements to intersection design treatments recommended by the Federal Highway Administration in its Design Handbook for Older Drivers and Pedestrians.
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Regulatory Negotiation Committee on Accessibility Guidelines for Outdoor Developed Areas

Source: United States Access Board
Evaluates requirements for access to outdoor facilities and those listed under Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG).
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The Effects of Bicycle Accomodations on Bicycle/Motor Vehicle Safety and Traffic Operations

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report discusses available research and state-of-the-practice information on wide (unmarked) curb lanes, marked bicycle lanes, shoulders used by bicyclists, and pathways and trails.
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Bicycle Boulevards

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Significant traffic growth leads Emerville, California to consider ways to create a safe throughway for bicyclists.
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Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon Designed to Accomodate Bicyclists

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center
The BikeHAWK assists both pedestrians and bicyclists in crossing Tucson’s major streets where signing alone or traditional traffic signaling is not warranted or appropriate.
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Bringing Life to Transportation

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
City of Tucson uses European signal systems -- PELICAN, HAWK, TOCAN, and PUFFIN -- and education program to improve pedestrian safety and fatality rate.
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Ke Ala Hele Makalae Trail

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
In order to guarantee public access to the coast for current and future residents, private landowners and city officials worked together to develop a multi-use path along Kauai's southeastern shore.
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A Compendium of Available Bicycle and Pedestrian Trip Generation Data in the United States

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This report summarizes the available information on modeling bicycle and pedestrian trip data.
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Info 2 Share

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Combination of low-cost engineering, education, and high-level enforcement reduce jaywalking and pedestrian fatalities on corridor in New Jersey.
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Route 71 Pedestrian Tunnel at Monmouth University

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
An underpass constructed at a high-volume street at Monmouth University eliminated growing pedestrian-vehicle conflicts.
Read More >

 

Pedestrian and Bicycle Facility Design Resource Index

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center
The Design Resource Index identifies the specific location of information in key national design manuals for various pedestrian and bicycle design treatments.
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Bicycle Safety-Related Research Synthesis

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This research synthesis is designed to summarize bicycle safety-related research and applied research since 1981 in the United States. The report updates an earlier synthesis prepared for the Federal Highway Administration in 1981.
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WALKArlington Pedestrian Initiative

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
WALKArlington initiative provides new signs, signals, and Light Emitting Diode (LED) crosswalks in an attempt to increase walking and reduce pedestrian crashes in rapidly urbanizing Arlington County.
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Complete the Streets

Source: National Complete Streets Coalition
This site contains design guides, training materials, illustrative presentations, susccessful case studies, and further resources on creating complete streets.
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Accessible Pedestrian Signals: Synthesis and Guide to Best Practice

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
This document provides background information on how pedestrians who are blind or visually impaired cross streets, and how Accessible Pedestrian Signals assist this process.
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The Effects of Traffic Calming Measures on Pedestrian and Motorist Behavior

Source: Highway Safety Administration
Whereas earlier studies usually focused on vehicle speeds and volumes, this study looked at motorist yielding and pedestrian crossing behavior, in addition to vehicle speeds.
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Pedestrian Safety Planning Group

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Citizen group partners whith government agencies in Bethlehem, NY to improve pedestrian safety through new sidewalks, signs, and institutionalized planning relationship.
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Irondequoit Lakeside Multi-Use Trail

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Lacking sidewalks through a popular park led to the construction of a new trail that minimized the impact on sensitive wetlands and provided greater transportation alternatives.
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Design Guidance Accommodating Bicycle and Pedestrian Travel: A Recommended Approach

Source: United States Department of Transportation
This policy statement adopted by the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) offers recommendations to public agencies, professional associations, advocacy groups, and others for integrating bicycling and walking into the transportation mainstream.
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Camelback Pedestrian Underpass

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Pedestrian underpass with multiple safety features used to connect high-traffic destinations under a six-lane street in Phoenix.
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Thurston Avenue Bridge Rehabilitation Project

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The only direct path for vehicular, pedestrian and bicycle traffic traveling between the main residence halls and the central academic campus of Cornell University was congested with high traffic volumes.
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A Checklist for Accessible Sidewalks and Street Crossings

Source: United States Access Board
ADA checklist for accessible sidewalks and street crossings.
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Bikeways: State of the Art, 1974

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This "State of the Art" report focuses on planning and design practices employed to date, reviews their successes and failures, outlines practices which appear to contribute to bicycle facility utility and safety,
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Traffic Calming to Enhance Pedestrian Safety

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
New York village uses a roundabout, colored crosswalks, curb extensions, and other treatments to improve pedestrian safety.
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A Resident's Guide for Creating Safer Communities for Walking and Biking

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This guide is intended to assist residents, parents, community association members, and others in getting involved in making communities safer for pedestrians and bicyclists. The guide includes facts,
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Building a True Community

Source: US Access Board
The following report is a recommendation for a new national set of guidelines that define the details necessary to make the streetscapes in public rights-of-way accessible to all users.
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Norfolk Pedestrian Safety Initiatives

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Significant population growth in Norfolk requires pedestrian safety measures to accommodate growing and diverse pedestrian population.
Read More >

 

National Trails Training Partnership (NTTP)

Source: National Trails Training Partnership
The National Trails Training Partnership provides technical assistance and resources for trails and greenways.
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Integration of Bicycles and Transit

Source: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Federal Transit Administration
The purpose of this report is to share information about how bicycles are integrated with public transportation by many different types of transit agencies in the United States and Canada.
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Severance Circle Project

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
A shopping mall that was unfriendly to pedestrian and bicycle use is retrofitted with sidewalks, pedestrian activated crossings, bicycle paths, and numerous other safety measures.
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Detectable Warnings Memorandum and Synthesis

Source: United States Department of Transportaion, Federal Highway Administration
Americans with Disabilities Act Title II Memorandum concerning the use of detectable warnings, specifically truncated domes.
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Eighth United States-Japan Workshop on Advanced Technology in Highway Engineering

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report summarizes the 8th U.S.- Japan Workshop on Pedestrian and Nighttime Safety. Focus areas included general trends in the U.S. and Japan, funding, disabled and elderly pedestrians, Geographic Information Systems (
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Crossing Solutions at Roundabouts and Channelized Turn Lanes for Pedestrians with Vision Disabilities

Source: Transportation Research Board
This report explores concerns over the accessibility of two complex intersection forms for blind pedestrians: intersections with channelized right turn lanes and roundabouts with one-lane and two-lane approaches.
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Tempe Crosscut Canal Multi-Use Path

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Shared use path in Tempe provides locally relevant public art and creates pedestrian and bicycle connections to neighborhoods and transit.
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Case Study No. 4: Measures to Overcome Impediments to Bicycling and Walking

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This case study is designed as a resource to assist policymakers, facility planners, and public officials in developing programs to make thses modes more accessible to the general public. Findings are based on a detailed analysis of these relevant written studies,
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Saranac Lake River Walk

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Pedestrian and environmentally friendly riverwalk in Saranac Lake transforms downtown river into a community asset.
Read More >

 

Capitol Building Intersection Renovation

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Crosswalk redesign, land reductions, access management, and targeted enforcement used to create a safer pedestrian environment around Tallahassee capitol building.
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Interstate Interchange Pedestrian Enhancement

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
New sidewalks, fencing, bus shelters, bus turn-outs, and other amenities transform unsafe interstate interchange in Englewood into a pedestrian friendly gateway into the community.
Read More >

 

Bicycle Facilities and the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The Federal Highway Administration table that lists various bicycle-related signs, markings, signals, and other treatments and identifies their status in the 2009 version of the MUTCD.
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Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access Part I

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The guides Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access Parts 1 and 2 provide the state of the art practice for applying the American with Disabilities Act (ADA) and similar requirements to pedestrian facilities.
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Pulaski County Pedestrian and Bicycle Bridge -- Murray Lock and Dam

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
A pedestrian and bicycle bridge stretches over 4,000 feet in length to connect pedestrian and bicycle trails on the north and south ends of the Arkansas River.
Read More >

 

Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access Part II

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This guidebook is the second part of a two-phase project focused on designing sidewalks and trails for access. It was created to provide planners, designers, and transportation engineers with a better understanding of how sidewalks and trails should be developed to promote pedestrian access for all users,
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Design and Safety of Pedestrian Facilities

Source: Institute of Transportation Engineers
Design and Safety of Pedestrian Facilities, A Recommended Practice of the Institute of Transportation Engineers is intended to provide guidance on how to implement a comprehensive program of engineering,
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National Bicycling and Walking Study - Five Year Status Report

Source: United States Department of Transportation
The National Bicycle and Walking Study presents a plan of action for activities at the Federal, State, and local levels for increasing the amount of walking and bicycling in the United States.
Read More >

 

False Creek Pedestrian and Cyclist Crossings Study

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Vancouver conducts a nonmotorist study of three bridge corridors into its downtown to help adequately plan for growing facility demand for walking and bicycling.
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Bicycling Renaissance in North America?

Source:
This paper reviews trends in cycling levels, safety, and policies in Canada and the USA over the past two decades.
Read More >

 

Complete Streets Implementation in Sacramento

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Streets should be designed to accommodate all users, promote sustainable transportation, and make neighborhoods and the urban core more livable.
Read More >

 

Bridgeport Way: The Role of a Major Arterial in Town-Making

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The redevelopment of an arterial road in University Place, Washington to reduce crashes and contribute to the local economy.
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Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities; Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Accessibility Guidelines; Supplementary Material

Source: United States Access Board
This supplementary material provides information on the adoption of enforceable standards based on the guidelines under the ADA and ABA.
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Transportation Planning Handbook: Chapter 16 - Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities

Source: Federal Highway Administration, Institute of Transportation Engineers
This chapter from the Transportation Planning Handbook provides standards for bicycle and pedestrian facilities, including methods to measure bicycle route suitability, travel demand simulations, LOS analysis,
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Reconfiguration of Thomas Circle

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Thomas Circle was retrofitted from a previous automobile-dominated design to one that would preserve its historic character and accommodate pedestrian and bicycle traffic.
Read More >

 

Victoria Transport Policy Institute

Source: Victoria Transport Policy Institute
The Victoria Transport Policy Institute is an independent research organization dedicated to developing innovative and practical solutions to transportation problems.
Read More >

 

Walkability Checklist in Spanish

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Insightful questions allowing you to evaluate your neighborhood's walkability.
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Identification and Ranking of High Pedestrian Crash Zones for Allocation of Safety Funds

Source: Transportation Research Board
This paper presents 1) a methodology to study the spatial patterns of pedestrian crashes in order to identify high pedestrian crash zones, and 2) an evaluation of methods to rank these high pedestrian crash zones.
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Bikeability Checklist in Spanish

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Insightful questions allowing you to evaluate your neighborhood's bikeability.
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Metropolitan Transportation Commission Bicycles/Pedestrians

Source: San Fransisco Bay Area Metropolitan Transportation Commission
The San Fransisco Bay Area MTC website offers information on current events, as well as a detailed planning toolbox and an engineering countermeasure database.
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Florida Department of Transportation Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Program

Source: Florida Department of Transportation
The Florida Pedestrian and Bicycle Program works in many areas to promote safe walking and bicycling in Florida.
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ODOT Design Guidance for Roadway-based Bicycle Facilities

Source: Office of Local Projects, Ohio Department of Transportation
This on-line document, ODOT Design Guidance for Roadway-Based Bicycle Facilities, serves as a supplement to the AASHTO Guide, and provides guidance on expectations for facilities constructed by ODOT.
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Case Study No. 11: Balancing Engineering, Education, Law Enforcement, and Encouragement

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report suggests a four-step process through which a community can implement a comprehensive "4-e" program to encourage non-motorized transportation. It includes suggestions for collecting basic data,
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A Guide for Reducing Collisions at Signalized Intersections

Source: National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board
This document provides strategies that can be employed to reduce the number of collisions at signalized intersections.
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Sunnyslope High School Pedestrian Demonstration Project

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Staggered crosswalk, pedestrian and motorist signage, and speed monitors improve pedestrian safety at Phoenix high school.
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Pedestrian and Bicyclist Traffic Control Device Evaluation Methods

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This report offers traffic engineering practitioners information on how to evaluate roadway traffic control devices used by pedestrians and bicyclists.
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Case Study No. 16: A Study of Bicycle and Pedestrian Programs in European Countries

Source: Federal Highway Administration
Most European nations have embarked on programs to reduce congestion, lower traffic accidents and improve the safety of cyclists and pedestrians. This paper concentrates on the ways bicycle and pedestrian facilities have been improved and cyclists and pedestrians benefited by these practices of &
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Pedestrian Countermeasure Policy Best Practice Report

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This report highlights State departments of transportation that have developed policies related to medians, walkways, and shoulders.
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Application of Pedestrian Crossing Treatments for Streets and Highways

Source: NCHRP
Compiles information on the state of existing practices regarding application of pedestrian crossing improvements, and does not produce new guidance. The report includes a survey of state departments of transportation (
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Traffic Control Devices Handbook

Source: Institute of Transportation Engineers
This Handbook bridges the gap between the MUTCD provisions and those decisions to be made in the field on device usage and application.
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State Best Practice Policy for Shoulders and Walkways

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This report highlights three agencies that have implemented policies and plans that promote the inclusion of paved shoulders and walkways.
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A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Pedestrians

Source: National Cooperative Highway Research Program
The National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 500, Volume 10: A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Pedestrians provides strategies that can be employed to reduce the number of collisions involving pedestrians.
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Case Study No. 18: Analyses of Successful Provincial, State, and Local Bicycle and Pedestrian Programs in Canada and the United States

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report reviews various potential indicators of success demonstrated by different programs to determine how very different bicycle and pedestrian programs can be compared and used as an example or model for other communities.
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Pedestrian Access to Roundabouts: Assessment of Motorists' Yielding to Visually Impaired Pedestrians and Potential Treatments to Improve Access

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report describes two related studies intended to address double-lane roundabout accessibility issues for visually impaired pedestrians.
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Case Study No. 19: Traffic Calming, Auto-Restricted Zones and Other Traffic Management Techniques - Their Effects on Bicycling and Pedestrians

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The body of this report can be divided into three parts. The first two major sections examine the history and traffic-calming techniques installed in Europe, Japan, and the United States. The final section of the report examines the practical and policy implication of traffic calming.
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Case Study No. 20: The Effects of Environmental Design on the Amount and Type of Bicycling and Walking

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report focuses on the effects of environmental design on the amount and type of bicylcing and walking in downtown, spcifically.
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A Toolbox for Alleviating Traffic Congestion and Enhancing Mobility

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE)
This document provides information on reducing congestion.
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Synthesis of Safety Research Related to Speed and Speed Management

Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This report presents a synthesis of research findings on the safety effects of speed, speed limits, enforcement, and engineering measures to manage speed.
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Crash Models for Rural Intersections

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report describes the collection, analysis, and modeling of crash and roadway data for intersections on rural roads in California and Michigan for the years 1993-1995.
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Bicycle/Pedestrian Trip Generation Workshop

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This document is a summary of the results of a 1996 FHWA sponsored workshop to discuss trip generation.
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Bureau of Transportation Statistics

Source: Bureau of Transportation Statistics
This site freely offers extensive data, statistics, and reports concerning transportation in the United States in addition to an online bookstore.
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Walkable Communities, Inc.

Source: Walkable Communities, Inc.
Walkable Communities is dedicated to helping whole communities, whether they are large cities, small towns, or parts of communities,become more walkable and pedestrian friendly.
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Case Study No. 24: Current Planning Guidelines and Design Standards Being Used by State and Local Agencies for Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities

Source: Federal Highway Administration
It is the goal of this case study to define current planning guidelines and design standards that are being used by States and localities fo the development of bicycle and pedestrian facilities, and identify state-
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Finding Strategies to Improve Pedestrian Safety in Rural Areas

Source: United States Department of Transportation, Connecticut Transportation Institute
The objective of this research is to study the safety of pedestrian crossings in rural areas to discover factors that help explain high rates of collisions involving pedestrians crossing the road.
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Safety & Locational Criteria for Bicycle Facilities

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This manual is designed to assist a designer of bicycle facilties in providing a safe and effective environment for bicyclists, pedestrians and motor vehicle operators.
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From Targeted "Black Spots" to Area-wide Pedestrian Safety

Source: Injury Prevention
This study describes and illustrates the geographic distribution of pedestrian crash sites in Montreal, Canada with an alternative data source. The full article may be purchased from Injury Prevention,
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A Compendium of NHTSA's Pedestrian and Bicyclist Traffic Safety Research Projects, 1969-2007

Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
This compendium describes the pedestrian and bicyclist safety research conducted by the Office of Behavioral Safety Research and its predecessor organizations during the period 1969-2007.
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Focusing on the Senior Pedestrian

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This short web document addresses the unique difficulties of the senior pedestrian, illustrating with charts and graphs.
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Highway Route Designation Criteria for Bicycle Routes: Handbook

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The Handbook is designed to simplify the task of selecting and designating streets and highways for bike routes. The topics covered include the definition of bike routes, the purpose(s) which affect suitability,
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Evaluation of Pedestrian Data Needs and Collection Efforts

Source: Transportation Research Board, University of Utah Department of Environmental Engineering
This paper discusses the extent to which pedestrian demand, behavior, and facilities data can assist in the study of pedestrian safety issues, reviews data collection strategies, suggests some data collection improvements,
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Methods of Increasing Pedestrian Safety at Right-Turn-On-Red Intersections (User's Manual)

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This study sought to determine current motorist compliance to RTOR regulations, develop and test countermeasures for RTOR pedestrian crashes, and develop improved guidelines for prohibition of RTOR.
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Investigation of the Impact of Medians on Road Users

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The purpose of this study is to determine the safety impact of raised curb medians, two-way left-turn lane medians, and undivided cross sections on vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The study concentrates on medians located on unlimited access arterials in central business districts (
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NYU Wagner Rudin Center for Transportation Policy & Management

Source: New York University Wagner Rudin Center for Transportation Policy & Management
This site freely provides all the center's research publications, information on education courses and technical assistance, and updates on news and events.
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Pedestrian Road Safety Audit Guidelines and Prompt Lists

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The Federal Highway Administration guidelines and prompt lists will help familiarize transportation professionals with pedestrian issues and help them identify specific concerns related to pedestrian safety throughout the road safety audit process.
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Urban Intersection Improvements for Pedestrian Safety

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report compares five school-pedestrian crossing designs with their fully signalized control sites discussing their relative advantages and disadvantages. Further comparisons were made between the various alternatives.
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Rutgers Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center

Source: The State University of New Jersey at Rutgers
The Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center (VTC) at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is a national leader in the research and development of innovative transportation policy.
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Can New Urbanism Encourage Physical Activity?

Source: Journal of the American Planning Association
This study compared various measures of physical activity for residents of a new urbanist neighborhood to those for a group of conventional suburban neighborhoods in central North Carolina. The full article may be purchased from the Journal of the American Planning Association or accessed by subscribers.
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Texas Transportation Institute

Source: Texas Transportation Institute
This site provides a searchable database of the institute's numerous research reports.
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Destination Doylestown Bike & Hike Path

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Shared use path in Doylestown combines with traffic calming measures to provide safer pedestrian and bicycle access to multiple neighborhoods.
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University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center

Source: University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Federal Highway Administration
This state research center provides road safety information, research publication, news, and additional resources.
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Factors Influencing Injury Severity of Motor Vehicle-Crossing Pedestrian Crashes in Rural Connecticut.

Source: Accident Analysis & Prevention, Elsevier Science Ltd.
The ordered probit model was used to evaluate the effect of roadway and area type features on injury severity of pedestrian crashes in rural Connecticut. The full text can be purchased through ScienceDirect,
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Urban Intersection Improvements for Pedestrian Safety

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report summarizes that protion of the research dealing with pedestrian signal displays and operation which was completed in Phase II of the three-phase project on urban intersection improvements for pedestrian safety.
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The Padden Parkway Pedestrian/Bicycle Bridge

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Shared use overpass installed over a major parkway in Clark County increases neighborhood connectivity and provides safe crossing for pedestrians and bicyclists.
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Easter Seals Project Action

Source: Easter Seals Project Action, Federal Transit Administration
Easter Seals Project ACTION promotes cooperation between the transportation industry and the disability community to increase mobility for people with disabilities under the ADA and beyond. It offers a research clearinghouse,
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New Jersey Governor's Pedestrian Safety Initiative

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The governor of New Jersey starts a Pedestrian Safety Initiative to reduce teh number of pedestrian fatalities across the state.
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Urban Intersection Improvements for Pedestrian Safety

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report summarizes research completed in the first phase of a three-phase project. This phase was directed at identifying and defining the safety and operational problems associated with the interaction of pedestrians and vehicles at intersections.
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Linear Shared Use Path

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The linear shared use path in Piqua spans more than 10 miles and provides additional pedestrian and bicycle facilities through the use of old railroad right-of-way.
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Flexibility in Highway Design

Source: Federal Highway Administration
Presents methods of designing facilities that are sensitive to the surrounding environment that still meet accepted design guidelines.
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Pedestrian Crosswalk Safety: Evaluating In-Pavement, Flashing Warning Lights

Source: Federal Highway Administration, New Jersey Department of Transportation
This report describes work undertaken to determine the effect of an in-pavement flashing warning light system installed on a crosswalk on pedestrian safety, relative to striping.
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Urban Intersection Improvements for Pedestrian Safety

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The purpose of the study of Urban Intersection Improvements for Pedestrian Safety was to identify problems associated with pedestrian-vehicle interactions at intersections, develop countermeasure concepts that would reduce these problems,
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Geometric Design Practices for European Roads

Source: International Technology Exchange Program, Federal Highway Administration
Presents examples of European design practice and operations.
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Urban Intersection Improvements for Pedestrian Safety

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report presents the final results of the signal timing element fo the FHWA research project "Urban Intersection Improvements for Pedestrian Safety." The report discusses the research which was conducted,
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Sidewalk Improvements in the Downtown Area

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Major sidewalk reconstruction and streetscape program transforms unattractive historic downtown area into a safer and more welcoming pedestrian environment.
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Implementing Bicycle Improvements at the Local Level

Source: Federal Highway Administration, Bicycle Federation of America
Demonstrates what facility designs and operational practices can be used to enhance bicycle travel.
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Safety & Locational Criteria for Bicycle Facilities

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This manual is designed to enable users to make judgements on the need for and the location and form of biyclc facilities.
Read More >

 

Accessible Sidewalks and Street Crossings

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The intent of this guide is to focus on some of the emerging accessibility issues and the design parameters that affect sidewalk and street crossing design and operation.
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A Return on Investment Analysis of Bikes-on-Bus Programs

Source: National Center For Transit Research, Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida
This paper looks at the return on investment for Bikes-on-Bus programs. The document includes recommendations on how transit agencies can overcome rack capacity limitations.
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Model Pedestrian Safety Program

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This Guide describes how localities can plan, imnplement, and evaluate a pedestrian safety program. A six-step Model Pedestrian Safety Program is described.
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Rails with Trails: Lessons Learned

Source: Federal Highway Administration
A research report about trails located near railroad and transit rights-of-way.
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Model Pedestrian Safety Program

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This Supplement to the Model Pedestrian Safety Program User's Guide provides detailed information on specific pedestrian safety countermeasures.
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Selecting Roadway Design Treatments to Accommodate Bicycles

Source: Federal Highway Administration
Presents a methodology for selecting the most appropriate type of on- road bicycle facility.
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Denver Bike Map

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The goal was to create an easily-maintainable, readable, user-friendly map that clearly defined the location of current bike routes, lanes, and other facilities.
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A Review of the Impacts of the Towaway Reporting Threshold on a Highway Safety Program

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This study reviews the potential impacts of a towaway reporting threshold on the North Carolina Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) listings and on the locations and types of crash patterns identified on collision diagrams by field engineers.
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Pedestrian Safety and Mobility Aids for Crossings at Bus Stops

Source: New Jersey Department of Transportation, The Federal Highway Administration
This paper describes a project initiated by the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) and New Jersey Transit Corporation (NJ TRANSIT) to investigate solutions poor mid-block crossings that would benefit pedestrians and encourage mass transit ridership.
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Conflicts on Multiple Use Trails

Source: Federal Highway Administration
Presents a series of principles for more effective operations of multi use trails.
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El Cajon's Road Diet

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Suburban development and increased traffic diminished Main Street's appeal to pedestrians. However, the use of a road diet and addition of new shops led to the revitalization of downtown.
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Older Pedestrian Characteristics for Use in Highway Design

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The objective of this project was to develop traffic planning and engineering guidelines for the design of pedestrian facilities that are sensitive to the needs of older pedestrians.
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Traffic Calming: State of the Practice

Source: Federal Highway Administration, Institute of Transportation Engineers
Summarizes the various methods used to either slow or divert motor vehicle traffic.
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Effective Treatments of Over and Undercrossings for Use by Bicyclists, Pedestrians, and the Handicapped

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This study provides information about over and undercrossings directed toward planners, designers, and decision makers who are trying to best serve the needs of bicyclists, pedestrians, and the handicapped,
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Traffic Operations Control for Older Drivers and Pedestrians

Source: Federal Highway Administration
Offers guidelines on roadway and traffic control device use by older drivers and pedestrians.
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The Feasibility of Accommodating Physically Handicapped Individuals on Pedestrian Over and Undercrossing Structures

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report describes the evalutation of a sampling of over- and undercrossing structures to identify major and minor access barriers for the physically handicapped.
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An Investigation of the Potential for Pathways Shared by Pedestrians and Bicyclists

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This report provides level of service and volume measurements in addition to measurements of conflict potential in order to determine the potential for shared pathways for bicyclists and pedestrians.
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Seeing Crosswalks in a New Light: In-Roadway Warning Lighting Research

Source: Federal Highway Administration, Public Roads
FHWA tested in-pavement flashing warning lights at a pedestrian crossing in a Virginia community.
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Pedestrian Safety Guide for Transit Agencies

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This guide is intended for transit agency staff looking to improve pedestrian safety and access near transit stations, bus stops, and other transit locations.
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City of Boulder Crosswalk Compliance Studies & Treatment Implementation

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The City of Boulder conducts a crosswalk compliance study to determine the effectiveness of five different alternative treatments, and encourage walking.
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Pedestrian Safety Prediction Methodology for Urban Signalized Intersections

Source: Transportation Research Board
The objective of this research was to develop a methodology for quantifying the pedestrian safety effects related to existing site characteristics and/or proposed improvements on urban and suburban arterials.
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Innovative Traffic Control: Technology and Practice in Europe

Source: International Technology Exchange Program, Federal Highway Administration
Presents the state of the art of emerging technologies for traffic control devices.
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Traffic Safety Digest

Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
This page highlights case studies of pedestrian and bicycle safety projects around the United States, dating between 1996 and 2003.
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Pedestrian Forum newsletter

Source: Federal Highway Administration
A quarterly newsletter focusing on topics on how to improve conditions for bicycling and walking and to make them safer ways to travel.
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Toolbox of Countermeasures and Their Potential Effectiveness for Pedestrian Crashes

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This issue brief documents estimates of the crash reduction that might be expected if a specific countermeasure or group of countermeasures is implemented with respect to pedestrian crashes. The crash reduction estimates are presented as Crash Reduction Factors (
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Tool Kit for Integrating Land Use and Transportation Decision-Making

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The objective of this tool kit is to provide a user-friendly, web-based source of methods, strategies, and procedures for integrating land use and transportation planning, decision-making, and project implementation.
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Report to the U.S. Congress on the Outcomes of the Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This report presents the outcomes of the Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program in four US communities.
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Making Cycling Irresistible: Lessons from the Netherlands, Denmark, and Germany

Source:
With the combination of aggregate data and case studies this paper shows how the Netherlands, Denmark, and Germany have made bicycling safe anc convenient in their small and large cities.
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Pedestrian Signal Safety for Older Persons

Source: AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety
The AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety report, Pedestrian Signal Safety for Older Persons, states that in the jurisdictions studied, pedestrian signals timed to accommodate walking speeds of 4 feet per second would not accommodate an older pedestrian walking at the 15th percentile speed for older pedestrians.
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Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety and Mobility in Europe

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The purpose of the 2009 international scanning study was to identify and assess effective approaches to improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety and mobility.
Read More >

 

Evaluation of the Rectangular Rapid Flash Beacon at a Pinellas Trail Crossing in St. Petersburg, Florida

Source: University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, FDOT
This report is an evaluation of the installation of the rectangualr rapid flash beacon (RRFB) where the Pinellas Trail crosses 22nd Avenue N in St. Petersburg, Florida.
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Intermodal Transportation Planning and Development: A Closer Look at Linking Transit to Bicycling and Walking

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Using bike facility construction, regional collaboration, and encouragement, Tucson enhanced accessibility and improved intermodal connections.
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An Examination of Bicycle Counts and Speeds Associated with the Installation of Bike Lanes in St. Petersburg, Florida

Source: University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, FDOT
This report focuses on the before-after change in the amount of bicycle riding associated with the installation of bicycle lanes along two corridors in St. Petersburg, Florida.
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Surface Transportation Policy Project

Source: Surface Transportation Policy Project
The Surface Transportation Policy Project is a diverse, nationwide coalition working to ensure safer communities and smarter transportation choices that enhance the economy, improve public health, promote social equity,
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Bicycle Road Safety Audit Guidelines and Prompt Lists

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The purpose of this resource is to provide transportation agencies and RSA teams with a better understanding of the safety of cyclists in the transportation system when conducting an RSA.
Read More >

 

Safety Effects of the Conversion of Rural Two-Lane Roadways to Four-Lane Roadways

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This study develops an initial estimate of the safety effects of conversion of typical sections of two- to four-lane roads and predicts whether such effects would be similar across multiple States.
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Countermeasures That Work

Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center (HSRC)
This report explores highway safety strategies and countermeasures relevant to State Highway Safety Offices; summarizes their use, effectiveness, costs, and implementation; and provides references to research summaries and individual studies.
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Safety Effects of Using Narrow Lanes and Shoulder-Use Lanes to Increase the Capacity of Urban Freeways

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This study analyzes the safety effects of using narrower lanes to increase the number of travel lanes in urban freeways.
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An Evaluation of Red Shoulders as a Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility

Source: Highway Safety Research Center, Florida Department of Transportation
This study evaluates the effectiveness of red shoulder treatment on one neighborhood road in Lake County, Florida.
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Anthem Park Development

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Vancouver Housing Authority redevelops abandoned high school to connect senior community with Main Street through pedestrian-friendly measures.
Read More >

 

The Effects of NO TURN ON RED / YIELD TO PEDS Variable Message Signs on Motorist and Pedestrian Behavior

Source: Highway Safety Research Center, Florida Department of Transportation
This report evaluates the effects of variable message signs in Orlando, Florida, on motorist and pedestrian behavior.
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A Partnership for Pedestrian Safety

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Eagle County works cooperatively with the Colorado DOT to redesign a major intersection to improve pedestrian safety while improving traffic flow as well.
Read More >

 

Quantifying Countermeasure Effectiveness

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
By analyzing pedestrian and bicyclist crash data, Metropolitan Orlando gained an understanding of safety needs and made countermeasure recommendations to correct them.
Read More >

 

Bicycle Access to Public Transportation: Learning from Abroad

Source: Institute for Transportation Engineers Journal
This paper studies bicycling in Europe and concludes American communities need to consider new more cost-effective strategies to expand transit use and reduce automobile dependence. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board,
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Allen and Pike Streets Corridor Improvements

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The Allen-Pike Streets corridor, suffering from high-speed and weaving traffic, underwent a transformation to improve safety.
Read More >

 

A Distance-Based Method to Estimate Annual Pedestrian and Bicyclist Exposure in an Urban Environment

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This report presents methods that can be used to measure the safety of places, including intersections, road segments, and parking lots, when considering the effect on pedestrians and bicyclists.
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Access and Mobility Design Policy for Disabled Pedestrians at Road Crossings

Source: Transportation Research Board
This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board, or accessed by subscribers. In this article, issues affecting design policies for highways and streets are explored in terms of functional capabilities of disabled and encumbered pedestrians.
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Accessible Pedestrian Signals: Effects on Safety and Independence of Pedestrians Who Are Blind

Source: Transportation Research Board
Presents research on street crossings by [visually impaired] pedestrians, before and after the installation of accessible pedestrian signals (APS). This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board,
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Evaluation of Lane Reduction "Road Diet" Measures on Crashes

Source: Highway Safety Information System (HSIS)
The objective of this reanalysis was to estimate the change in total crashes resulting from the conversions in two databases and to combine these estimates into a crash modification factor(CMF).
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Crossing Islands

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The reconfiguration of the "most dangerous intersection" in Eureka, California, to make it safer for pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorists.
Read More >

 

Pedestrians and Bicycles

Source: Transportation Research Board
This Transportation Research Record contains 24 papers on the subject of pedestrians and bicycles. It can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board, or accessed by subscribers.
Read More >

 

Curb Bulb-outs with Bicycle Parking

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The City of Corvallis decided to install three curb bulb-outs/curb extensions on the main commercial strip to maximize their impact in an area with heavy bicycle and pedestrian traffic.
Read More >

 

Daylighting

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Hoboken, New Jersey's experience finding a creative, low-cost solution to improve pedestrian safety at crosswalks.
Read More >

 

Behavior of Bicyclist in Following

Source: Transportation Research Board
A bicycle-following model presented in this paper represents the behavior of bicyclists as they follow each other in traffic stream without an opportunity or sufficient stimulus to overtake or pass a lead bicycle.
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Downtown Revitalization Partnerships

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
In the 1990s, Clemson, South Carolina city officials carried out an ambitious series of improvements to the downtown pedestrian environment to make it safer and more appealing.
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Improving the Pedestrian Environment at Grand Army Plaza

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
In 2011, the New York DOT transformed Grand Army Plaza with new signals and phasing plans, new concrete islands with planting beds, a major sidewalk extension, and shorter pedestrian crossings.
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Pedestrian Signalization Alternatives

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The purpose of this study was to determine the operational and safety effects of various pedestrian signalization alternatives. An analysis was conducted of pedestrian accidents, traffic and pedestrian volumes,
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Decision to Pass and Passing Maneuvers of Bicyclists

Source: Transportation Research Board
This paper presents models to represent passing maneuvers of bicycles on both exclusive and on-street bicycle facilities. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board, or accessed by subscribers.
Read More >

 

Old Town Improvements

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The City of Eureka Planning and Engineering Departments and concerned citizens worked together to make the Old Town District more pedestrian friendly
Read More >

 

Planning, Design, and Maintenance of Pedestrian Facilities

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This handbook consolidates the current state-of-the-art pertaining to pedestrian facilities.
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Estimating Bicycle Usage on a National Cycle Network

Source: Transportation Research Board
This research estimates the economic impacts of bicycle tourist based on cycling-related expenditure associated with trips made on the national network. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board,
Read More >

 

Park Trail Bridges

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
One Prescott, Arizona non-profit's successful experience building creek crossings for a local trail in spite of funding constraints and engineering challenges.
Read More >

 

Evaluation Method for Sidewalk Unevenness Based on Wheelchair Traveling Resistance

Source: Transportation Research Board
This paper analyzes the longitudinal profile of sidewalks in service and torque data on traveling wheelchairs toward proposing a method for evaluating the surface unevenness of sidewalks based on the travel resistance imposed on wheelchairs.
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Pedestrian Safety Initiative

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The use of a strategic plan in Montgomery County, Maryland that featured measurable strategies as a blueprint for data-driven action to deploy resources to best impact pedestrian safety.
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Experiments and Theory of Self-Organization in Pedestrian Flow

Source: Transportation Research Board
In this paper, [the authors] put forward a theory of selforganization, as well as results from experimental research that provides more insight into these spatial-temporal phenomena. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board,
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Evaluation of the Miami-Dade Pedestrian Safety Demonstration Project

Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success of a comprehensive pedestrian safety program in reducing pedestrian crashes in Miami-Dade County, Florida.
Read More >

 

A Pedestrian Planning Procedures Manual

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The Manual identifies the significant data, procedures, and criteria that should be considered in the planning and evaluation of both comprehensive pedestrian systems and individual facilities.
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Free Speed Distributions for Pedestrian Traffic

Source: Transportation Research Board
This paper presents a new method to estimate free speed distributions for pedestrian flows. This resource may also be purchased through the Transportation Research Board.
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Street Redesign for Revitalization

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
West Palm Beach rejuvenated its economy and community by redesigning downtown to accommodate and attract pedestrians.
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From TIGER to Audit Instruments: Using GIS-Based Street Data to Measure Neighborhood Walkability

Source: Transportation Research Board
This paper explores how the path network around key urban destinations can be visually and quantitatively analyzed. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board, or accessed by subscribers.
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Trail Intersection Improvements

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The Springwater Corridor pedestrian and bicycle trail in Portland, Oregon, was the site of a series of safety improvements at locations where the trail intersected with local streets and driveways.
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Pedestrian Safety Programs: A Review of the Literature and Operational Experience

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The objective of the research effort was to develop an empirically and experiencially based model pedestrian safety program which cities can use as guidelines for pedestrian safety program planning,
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Wall Street Revitalization

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The redevelopment of pedestrian-friendly Wall Street in downtown Asheville, NC, in the 1980s and 1990s.
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Pedestrian Trip Making Characteristics and Exposure Measures

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The objectives of this projects were to identify specific pedestrian trip making characteristics, develop pedestrian exposure measures, and to examine these results relative to accident information in order to determine the relative hazardousness of various pedestrian characteristics and behaviors.
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Identifying and Measuring Urban Design Qualities Related to Walkability

Source: Journal of Physical Activity and Health
This project has developed operational definitions and measurement protocols for subtler urban design qualities believed to be related to walkability.
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Determination of Appropriate Railing Heights for Bicyclists

Source: National Cooperative Highway Research Program, American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
This study summarizes the bicycle railing height guidelines and specifications used by AASHTO, state departments of transportation (DOTs), international transportation agencies, and local governments.
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Development of Boulder's Multimodal System

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Boulder has leveraged natural advantages with a significant commitment, well-designed plans, and resourceful follow-through to build a multimodal system and institutionalize the accommodation of bicycling and walking on many levels.
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Comprehensive Intersection Resource Library

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Resources included in this library represent a broad cross section of publications, educational materials and other media published by the Federal Highway Administration and other transportation safety partners.
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Advance Yield Markings

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
A solution to reduce multiple-threat collisions at unsignalized pedestrian crossings.
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Space Syntax: An Innovative Pedestrian Volume Modeling Tool for Pedestrian Safety

Source: UC Berkeley Traffic Safety Center
This paper describes an innovative pedestrian modeling technique known as Space Syntax, which was used to create estimates of pedestrian volumes for the city of Oakland, California.
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Planning for the Bicycle as a Form of Transportation

Source: Federal Highway Administration
A Bikeway Systems Planning Manual for assisting public officials and bicycle enthusiast groups in designing and implementing safe and economic bikeways in the local community.
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Index for Assessing Pedestrian Safety at Intersections

Source: Transportation Research Board
This study attempts to develop a safety index that will allow engineers, planners, and other practitioners to prioritize intersection crosswalks with respect to pedestrian safety. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board,
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A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions

Source: National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies
This guide demonstrates how state departments of transportation (DOTs) and other transportation agencies can incorporate context sensitivity into their transportation project development work.
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Curb Extensions in Rural Village

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
A more pedestrian-oriented design was desired in downtown Fort Plain, New York, and curb extentions were installed as a result.
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Micro-Simulated Comparisons of Alternative Signalized Pedestrian Crossings

Source: Transportation Research Board
The objective is to study how changing the crossing type affects various measures of effectiveness for both vehicles and pedestrians. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board,
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Accessibility Guidebook for Outdoor Recreation and Trails

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Forest Service (USFS)
This guidebook is intended to help designers and recreation professionals apply the Forest Service Outdoor Recreation Accessibility Guidelines (FSORAG) and Forest Service Trail Accessibility Guidelines (
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Double-Ladder Crosswalks

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The Salt Lake City's Division of Transportation used double-ladder crosswalks to successfully maintain pedestrian safety at intersections without compromising the ability of pedestrians to cross safely in wet pavement conditions.
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State of the Art: Class I Bicycle Path Pavements

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report presents the state-of-the-art (at the time of writing) of Class I bicycle path pavements.
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Modeling Pedestrian Trip Generation in Urban Areas

Source: Transportation Research Board
This study investigates factors that can be used to quantify peak hour daily pedestrian trips in urban areas to help estimate pedestrian trips. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board,
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Shared-Use Path Level of Service Calculator

Source: Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center, Federal Highway Administration
The purpose of this project was to develop a level of service (LOS) estimation method for shared-use paths that overcomes previous limitations.
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National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior

Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
This report provides a top line summary of key data results regarding the behaviors and attitudes on various topics related to walking and bicycling.
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Grade-Separated Trail Crossing

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The construction of a bridge to carry Huntington, West Virginia, trail users over a creek but under a busy arterial road.
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Motorist Yielding to Pedestrians at Unsignalized Intersections

Source: Transportation Research Board
This paper describes the evaluation of engineering treatments that can be used to improve the safety of pedestrians crossing in marked crosswalks on busy arterial streets. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board,
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A Walkable Community Brochure

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This brochure is intended for safety practitioners, advocates, and other special road users who want to create "walkable/bikable" communities.
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National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior

Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
This report provides a detailed analysis of behaviors and attitudes on various topics related to walking and bicycling.
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Greenway Pedestrian Bridge

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The City of Phoenix relocated a bridge to create a safer crossing for children to reach a school that was located near a new seven-lane parkway.
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National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior

Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
This report describes the methods used to conduct the interviews and analyze the data from the National Survey.
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High-Volume Pedestrian Crossings

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The development of a methodology was needed to guide the design of pedestrian crossings in areas with very high pedestrian volumes in Las Vegas, Nevada.
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Observational Analysis of Pedestrian, Bicyclist, and Motorist Behaviors at Roundabouts in the United States

Source: Transportation Research Board
This paper focused on analyzing the interactions between motorists and pedestrians or bicyclists at roundabouts. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board, or accessed by subscribers.
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Driver Attitudes and Behaviors at Intersections and Potential Effectiveness of Engineering Countermeasures

Source: Battelle Human Factors Transportation Center, Federal Highway Administration
The objective of this focus group study was to identify driver attitudes and behaviors related to intersection safety and to assess the likely impacts of new or existing infrastructure-based technologies/
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Safety and Location Criteria for Bicycle Facilities

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report is a compendium of all research activities undertaken during the Safety and Locational Criteria for Bicycle Facilities research projet.
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Pedestrian Conspicuity at Night: How Much Biological Motion is Enough?

Source: Transportation Research Board
This paper describes how inadequate conspicuity has been shown to be a key causal factor in nighttime vehicle-pedestrian collisions. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board,
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Guide for Curing of Portland Cement Concrete Pavements

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This document provides guidance on details of concrete curing practice as they pertain to construction of portland cement concrete pavements.
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Highway Design Handbook for Older Drivers and Pedestrians

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This project updated, revised, and expanded the scope of the Older Driver Highway Design Handbook published by FHWA in 1998.
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Leading Pedestrian Interval

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
St. Petersburg, Florida introduced the leading pedestrian interval to reduce the number of conflicts between pedestrians and turning vehicles.
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Pedestrian Crossing Infrastructure

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Las Vegas, Nevada, addressed a high rate of pedestrian crashes using "Turning Vehicles Yield to Pedestrians" signs, advance yield markings, and in-roadway knockdown signs to produce significant improvements in motorist yielding behavior.
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Pfluger Pedestrian-Bicycle Bridge

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The addition of pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure to a historic bridge that could not be altered in Austin, Texas.
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Bicycle Lanes Versus Wide Curb Lanes: Operational and Safety Findings and Countermeasure Recommendations

Source: Highway Safety Research Center (HSRC), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This report presents operational and safety findings and countermeasure recommendations from a comparative analysis of bicycle lanes versus wide curb lanes.
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Turner Fairbank Highway Safety Research Center Library

Source: Turner Fairbank Highway Safety Research Center
This page contains links to all the publications and research material developed by the Turner Fairbank Highway Safety Research Center.
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Staggered Median

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
A stagged median and pedestrian hybrid beacon help students to safely cross a busy arterial in Tucson, Arizona.
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Vermont Street Bike and Pedestrian Bridge

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
A pedestrian and bicycle bridge in San Diego, California, provides a safe and convenient alternative to crossing a high speed arterial road.
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Planning and Designing Bicycle Facilities

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This slide show discusses the benefits of bicycling, related legislation, design standards, roadway hazards, multi-use trail design, and additional related programs. This slide show also contains many illustrative images.
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Access to Transit

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
To encourage pedestrian traffic and ensure pedestrians' safety, WMATA built new sidewalks and crosswalks at Metro stations in the Washington, D.C. metro area.
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Curb Extensions for Safety and Transit Access

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Heavy traffic and high vehicle speeds made it difficult for pedestrians to cross a major road in Virginia, so curb extensions, high-visibility ladder crosswalks, and warning signs were installed.
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Bicycle and Pedestrian Travel Demand Forcasting

Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This report summarizes data collection activities performed at eight different sites in Texas urban areas.
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Improved Sidewalk Access - Aurora Avenue Corridor Project

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The City of Shoreline dramatically changed the 3-mile Aurora Avenue corridor to make it safer and more pleasant for pedestrians.
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The Effect of Crosswalk Markings on Vehicle Speeds in Maryland, Virginia, and Arizona

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This study examines the effect of pavement markings on pedestrian safety at six sites in three states.
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Evaluation of Shared-Use Facilities for Bicycles and Motor Vehicles

Source: Highway Safety Research Center, Federal Highway Administration
The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and utility of shared-use facilities in order to provide engineers and planners comprehensive results that can be used in planning and designing roadways to be shared by motorists and bicyclists.
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Park Road Restriping

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Mode separation, wider bicycle and pedestrian lanes, and better signage have made the Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, North Park roadway safer and more comfortable for pedestrians.
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BIKESAFE: Bicycle Countermeasure Selection System

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
BIKESAFE is intended to provide practitioners with the latest information, available for improving the safety and mobility of those who bicycle. It is an expert system that allows the user to select appropriate countermeasures or treatments to address specific problems.
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Main Street Roundabout

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
A roundabout offers an improved pedestrian safety environment at one Montpelier, Vermont intersection.
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Roundabout for Downtown Revitalization

Source: Laurie Actman, Patrick McMahon, Henry Renski, Ramon Trias
A Fort Pierce roundabout with medians and curb extensions on the approaches safely accommodates vehicles while encouraging increased pedestrian traffic.
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Berkshire Street Traffic Calming

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The City of Cambridge chose the Berkshire/York Street area to demonstrate the benefits of traffic calming for addressing speeding motorists.
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Fifth Street Traffic Calming

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The redesign of a Tempe street to improve safety for pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit users, while maintaining its character.
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How to Develop a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
How to Develop a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan offers guidance that can help municipalities determine and solve their pedestrian safety concerns, from identifying pedestrian safety problems to obtaining funding and enacting change.
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Changing Directions: Federal Transportation Spending in the 1990s

Source: Surface Transportation Policy Project
In this report, the Surface Transportation Policy Project analyzes ten years of data from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Fiscal Management Information System as well as reports from the Federal Transit Administration that track how the states have spent federal transportation dollars.
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Granite Street Traffic Calming

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Neighborhood concern about speeding was addressed through the use of traffic calming measures.
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Traffic Calming Do's and Don'ts to Encourage Bicycling

Source: Institute of Transportation Engineers
This report discusses the role of the bicycle boulevard in a community and offers information on traffic calming measures that are both compatible and incompatible with bicycles.
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Leland Street Redesign in Bethesda

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The redesign of Leland Street, undertaken in cooperation with neighborhood residents, resulted in slower speeds and safer conditions for pedestrians walking along the street and crossing at intersections.
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Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The Federal Highway Administration website provides information on a wide variety of policy documents and national statistics.
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Livernois Avenue Corridor Project

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The City of Detroit and Michigan Department of Transportation improved pedestrian safety on Livernois Avenue through the use of a HAWK beacon and median.
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Main Street Redesign

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
According to the city of Hendersonville, North Carolina, the new serpentine layout of Main Street slows traffic, makes the street safer for pedestrians, and gives drivers a chance to see the local businesses.
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FHWA Bicycle and Pedestrian Program

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The Bicycle & Pedestrian Program website presents information on funding, legislation, and design standards. It also provides federal publications related to pedestrian and bicycle issues.
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New York City Complete Streets Design Guidance

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The development of complete streets design guidelines in New York City.
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Serpentine Street Design

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Milvia Street in Berkeley, California, was the first street to have speed bumps installed to discourage cut-through traffic.
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Seventh Avenue Traffic Calming

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
A number of engineering countermeasures were deployed to reduce the problems of cut-through traffic and speeding in this coastal residential community.
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Slow Zones

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The implementation of the Neighborhood Slow Zone program in the neighborhood with the highest number of pedestrian injuries and fatalities in New York City.
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Portland's Blue Bike Lanes

Source: City of Portland Office of Transportation
The project goal is to investigate the effectiveness of colored pavement markings in reducing bicyclist-motorist conflicts at designated crossing areas.
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Small Town Traffic Calming

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Residents of Oneonta pursued a pedestrian-friendly alternative to urban renewal projects that had resulted in narrow sidewalks, heavy vehicle traffic, and the demolition of historic buildings in the downtown area.
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Solutions from Citizen Input

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Citizen input guided the reconfiguration of First Street in Grand Junction, Colorado.
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Traffic Calming Program

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The City of Sarasota carried out a traffic calming program to help increase the safety of residents of neighborhood streets.
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Turner Fairbank: Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety

Source: Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center, Federal Highway Administration
The Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Research Web site provides information on issues and research related to improving pedestrian and bicyclist (pedalcyclist) safety.
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FHWA Office of Highway Safety

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This site contains information aboutpolicy, facts and statistics, design guidelines, crash analysis, safety education, and more concerning both pedestrians and bicyclists.
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Pedestrian Volume Modeling for Traffic Safety and Exposure Analysis

Source: UC Berkeley Traffic Safety Center
This paper examines three types of pedestrian volume models in light of their usefulness for estimating pedestrian exposure for pedestrian safety research.
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Pedestrian and Bicyclist Intersection Safety Indices

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The primary objective of this study was to develop safety indices to allow engineers, planners, and other practitioners to proactively prioritize intersection crosswalks and intersection approaches with respect to pedestrian and bicycle safety.
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Quantitative Measurement Procedures for Pedestrian Service at Signalized Intersections

Source: Transportation Research Board
This paper presents a case study evaluating pedestrian service based on three discrete pedestrian crossing outcomes: non-conflicting, compromised, and failed. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board,
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Pedestrian Infrastructure

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
A combination of pedestrian safety countermeasures was found to have a significant impact on pedestrian safety in San Francisco.
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Recommended Walking Speeds for Pedestrian Clearance Timing Base on Pedestrian Characteristics

Source: University of Wisconsin, Madison
Data from 1,947 pedestrian crossing events measured at eleven intersections in Madison and Milwaukee, Wisconsin were analyzed to determine the effect of subject age and disability, intersection traffic control condition,
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PUFFIN Crossing

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The installation of HAWK signals in Tucson, Arizona, increased yielding compliance rates and improved pedestrian safety.
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Design Speed, Operating Speed, and Posted Speed Practices

Source: National Cooperative Highway Research Program
This report discusses the criteria used to evaluate highway and street designs, including the presence of bicycle and pedestrian traffic
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Street Crossing Issues for Persons With Cognitive Disabilities

Source: Delaware County, Pennsylvania; Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority
This paper discusses issues and skills affecting safe crossing by persons with cognitive disabilities, and calls for research to identify design features, signalization and technologies that can enable users with cognitive disabilities to cross safely.
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Rectangular Rapid Flash Beacons (RRFBs)

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The installation of RRFBs and advance yield markings greatly improved mid-block crossing safety in St. Petersburg, Florida.
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Office of Highway Safety Pedestrian/Bicyclist Safety Program

Source: Federal Highway Administration Office of Safety
This site is designed to make it easier for the pedestrian safety practitioner and advocate to locate and acquire the most appropriate resources to meet their particular planning, design, and operation needs for pedestrian facilities.
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Rectangular Rapid Flash Beacons Near a NJ Rail Station: Elmwood Park and Fairlawn Boroughs

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The New Jersey Department of Tranpsortation installed a Rectangular Rapid Flash Beacon (RRFB) on each side of Route 4 in June 2011 to create a safe way for pedestrians to cross the busy highway.
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Signs and Signals

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
In response to high pedestrian collision rates, Miami-Dade County spent a little over 1 million dollars on the new countermeasures and found significant improvements in pedestrian safety.
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Corridor Traffic Calming

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Community members initiated a negotiation with local officials to decrease speeding in their neighborhoods and improve the pedestrian environment.
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Variation of Walking Speeds on a Unidirectional Walkway and on a Bidirectional Stairway

Source: Transportation Research Board
This paper describes a study of walking speed reliability under uni-directional and bidirectional pedestrian flow conditions within Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway stations. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board,
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Smart Traffic Signal System in Northern Virginia

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The community of Reston, Virginia, implemented five countermeasures to improve pedestrian safety through the city.
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Engineering Solutions to Pedestrian Safety

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Cambridge develops a pedestrian plan and increases sidewalk maintenance enforcement to improve its pedestrian environment.
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Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS) National Transportation Library

Source: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies
This online research database offers the option to search all documents classified under pedestrian, bicycles, or both.
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Walking in Waikiki: Measuring the Impact of Street Performers on Pedestrian Level-of-Service in an Urban Resort District

Source: Transportation Research Board
The purpose of this study is to examine pedestrian conditions in Waikiki, the most urbanized area in Honolulu. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board, or accessed by subscribers.
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Effects of Individualized Feedback on Car Drivers' Speed at Pedestrians Crossings

Source:
Investigation of the effects of a device which has been developed to mitigate risk of pedestrians during street crossing decreasing of car speeds and facilitating attention to vulnerable road users.
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Church Street Marketplace

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
What began as a one-day experiment blossomed into one of the most successful and widely emulated urban pedestrian malls in the country.
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Logistic Model for Rating Urban Bicycle Route Safety

Source: Transportation Research Board
This paper describes the research used to develop an objective bicycle route safety rating model based on injury severity. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board, or accessed by subscribers.
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Elementary School Crosswalk Enhancement Project

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Five different school locations in Bellevue, Washington were selected for pedestrian and bicycle facility improvement on the basis of the high number of students living within walking distance.
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Effects of a Towaway Reporting Threshold on Crash Analysis Results

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This paper attempts to quantify the expected effects on data analysis capabilities when different crash reporting thresholds are altered.
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United States Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board)

Source: United States Access Board
The Access Board is an independent Federal agency devoted to accessibility for people with disabilities.
Read More >

 

Pedestrian Safety Handbook

Source: American Council of the Blind
American Council for the Blind's handbook for improving the pedestrian environment that focuses on guaranteeing people who are blind or visually impaired access to intersection identification and traffic control information.
Read More >

 

Pedestrian Work Zone Traffic Control (WZTC)

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
This case study update summarizes how pedestrian traffic is maintained and protected in high density suburban road environments, where pedestrian facilities may or may not be present.
Read More >

 

U. S. Department of Transportation (USDOT)

Source: U. S. Department of Transportation
This site provides information on policies, regulations, research, grants, and more.
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Pedestrian Behavior and Perception in Urban Walking Environments

Source: Journal of Planning Literature
This report looks at how pedestrians will respond to characteristics of the environment as they formulate and enact their walking itineraries. This resource can be purchased through the Sage Journals Online.
Read More >

 

School Zone Roundabout

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The Green Bay, Wisconsin county planning commission's experiment with a roundabout in a school zone.
Read More >

 

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)

Source: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
AASHTO's primary goal is to foster the development, operation, and maintenance of an integrated national transportation system. The site offers and extensive online bookstore.
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School Zone Traffic Calming

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Through routine analysis of pedestrian safety around Portland's public schools, the City's Traffic Calming program identified one elementary school as a high priority for pedestrian safety measures.
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Enhancing America's Communities

Source: National Transportation Enhancements Clearinghouse
This guide, in its second edition, is a road map for navigating your way through the transportation enhancement process.
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Shared Street Developments

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The development of a neighborhood based on Dutch shared street concepts in Boulder, Colorado.
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American Public Works Association

Source: American Public Works Association
The American Public Works Association is an international educational and professional association of public agencies, private sector companies, and individuals dedicated to providing high quality public works goods and services.
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Selecting Pedestrian Safety Improvements

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The Crash Group/General Countermeasure Matrix identifies potential solutions for use by safety practitioners.
Read More >

 

State Street Pedestrian Mall

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The creation of a successful pedestrian mall in Madison, Wisconsin.
Read More >

 

American Traffic Safety Services Association

Source: The American Traffic Safety Services Association
ATSSA's core purpose is to advance roadway safety. The site offers services and information for traffic safety product companies, including training and certification.
Read More >

 

Terry Avenue North Shared Street

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The newly developing South Lake Union neighborhood in Seattle needed strong pedestrian connections to support the many people working and living in new concentrations of offices.
Read More >

 

Benefit-Cost Analysis of Bicycle Facilities

Source: University of Minnesota
If your community is considering building a new bicycle facility, you can use this tool to estimate costs, the demand in terms of new cyclists, and measured economic benefits (e.g., time savings, increased livability,
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Flexible Design of New Jersey's Main Streets

Source: The New Jersey Department of Transportation
This research finds a burgeoning national movement away from strict reliance on highway design templates and toward flexible highway design, especially in the Northeastern and Northwestern United States.
Read More >

 

Bikeability Checklist

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
How bikeable is your community? The Bikeability Checklist can help you find the answer.
Read More >

 

Data Collection and Analysis for Communities

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
This report describes how communities can collect data about bicycle and pedestrian facilities, and includes case studies from 27 communities. Future publications will include a recommended practices guide,
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Getting to Smart Growth II: 100 More Policies for Implementation

Source: International City/County Management Association
This is the second part of the "Getting to Smart Growth" guide.
Read More >

 

Guidelines for Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities in Texas

Source: Texas Transportation Institute, Texas Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration
An overview of the process for planning various types of bicycle and pedestrian projects is provided.
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Getting to Smart Growth: 100 More Policies for Implementation

Source: International City/County Management Association
This guide is the fourth primer in a series written and distributed by the International City/County Management Association (ICMA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Smart Growth Network.
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Cómo Alcanzar el Desarrollo Inteligente: 100 Políticas Para Su Implementación

Source: International City/County Management Association
This Spanish-language guide is the fourth primer in a series created to introduce communities to the benefits of "smart growth."
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Cómo Alcanzar el Desarrollo Inteligente, II: 100 Políticas Adicionales Para Su Implementación

Source: International City/County Management Association
This is the Spanish-language version of the second part of the "Getting to Smart Growth" guide.
Read More >

 

Walkable Communities: Twelve Steps for an Effective Program

Source: Florida Department of Transportation
This document provides a 12 step program for community members to help create a walkable community in which to live.
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Florida Pedestrian and Bicycle Research Reports

Source: Florida Department of Transportation
The Florida Department of Transportation conducts research on issues related to pedestrians and bicycles. Go to this section of the Department website to download some of the available reports (in pdf format)
Read More >

 

Pedestrian Planning and Design Guidelines

Source: New Jersey Department of Transportation
This guide discusses the importance of sidewalks in pedestrian mobility and safety. It defines appropriate facilities and design criteria to accomodate and foster pedestrian movement.
Read More >

 

Cycle Audit and Review

Source: UK Department for Transport
Cycle Audit is a systematic process, applied to planned changes to the transport network, which is designed to ensure that opportunities to encourage cycling are considered comprehensively and that cycling conditions are not inadvertently made worse.
Read More >

 

What is Traffic Calming?

Source: Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission
This image-rich PowerPoint presentation gives a short history of the pedestrian in transportation planning, and illustrates different traffic calming strategies used in various communities.
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Hard Lessons: Causes and Consequences of Michigan's School Construction Boom

Source: Michigan Land Use Institute
The Michigan Land Use Institute published this report to detail the problem and expose the challenges of managing growth and design.
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An Easy to Compute Index for Identifying Built Environments That Support Walking

Source: The Planning and Physical Activity Project at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the University of Maryland at College Park
This paper builds on prior practical and research applications of ... environmental scores or indices by proposing and testing a built environment index (BEI) calculated at the traffic analysis zone and that relies predominantly on widely available data.
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Special Report: Accessible Public Rights-of-Way Planning and Design for Alterations

Source: Public Rights-of-Way Access Advisory Committee
This technical assistance publication has been developed to provide guidance in the planning and design of pedestrian improvements constructed as part of an alteration project.
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Danish Road Directorate

Source: Danish Ministry of Transport and Energy
The mission of the Danish Road Directorate is to manage the national roads, which carry almost 30 % of the total transport volume in Denmark. The site contains crash statistics, training information,
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Evaluation of the Blue Bike Lane Treatment used in Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Conflicts Areas in Portland, Oregon

Source: Federal Highway Administration
Fiile not found. This paper presents a study conducted by the City of Portland, OR, to determine whether the use of colored markings and a novel signing system wouild help to improve safety at American bicycle/
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Evaluation of an Innovative Application of the Bike Box

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This paper evaluates the results of a "bike box" installed at a busyintersection in Eugene, Oregon. The full text may be purchased from the Transportation Research Board, or obtained by subscribers.
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Transportation Association of Canada

Source: Transportation Association of Canada
The Transportation Association of Canada is a national association with a mission to promote the provision of safe, secure, efficient, effective and environmentally and financially sustainable transportation services in support of Canada'
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European Network for Cycling Expertise (Velo.Info)

Source: EU Fifth Framework Programme
Velo.info is a nonprofit institute that provides expertise in creating and implementing a cycling policy. The site provides detailed information for planners and advocates on a variety of topics related to cycling,
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Bicycle / Pedestrian Safety Toolbox: Roadway Lighting Improvements

Source: Metropolitan Transportation Commission
This document describes ways to enhance security and pedestrian safety and comfort with roadway lighting improvements. For each pedestrian or bicycle safety tool, the site explains its function, objective,
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Institute of Transportation Engineers

Source: Institute of Transportation Engineers
The Institute of Transportation Engineers is an international educational and scientific association of transportation professionals who are responsible for meeting mobility and safety needs.
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Bicycle / Pedestrian Safety Toolbox: Pedestrian Pushbutton Treatments

Source: San Francisco Bay Area Metropolitan Transportation Commission
This document discusses traffic control devices to facilitate safe pedestrian crossings. For each tool, the site explains objectives, applications, target popluation, advantages, disadvantages, crash type,
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Keeping Children Safe in Traffic

Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Report by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development draws on best practices and research results to show how child casualties can be reduced. Free executive summary. $45 for full report.
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Crossing an Arterial through an Offset Intersection: Bicycle-Only Center-Turn Lane

Source: City of Portland, Oregon
This treatment successfully addressed three criteria: it offered a refuge for crossing bicyclists and allowed them to cross one direction of traffic at a time; it maintained all automotive turning movements;
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Home Zone Concepts and New Jersey

Source: Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center at Rutgers University
This report probes the potential for the application of the Dutch concept of woonerf, or Home Zone, for the United States, and particularly New Jersey.
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The Feasibility of Protecting Pedestrians Adjacent to Roadways

Source: Bureau of Operations Research, New Jersey Department of Transportation
This paper discusses the role of certain protective devices for separating pedestrians and vehicles along roadways.
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Sustainable Highways Self-Evaluation Tool

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), US Department of Transportation
This tool identifies characteristics of sustainable highways and provides techniques to help organizations apply sustainability best practices into roadway projects within system planning, project development,
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Cycling for a Few or for Everyone

Source: World Transport Policy and Practice, Vol. 15, No. 1
This article reports empirical evidence that multi-faceted strategies (education, enforcement, and provision of facilities) are more effective in increasing cycling safety and raising overall cycling levels.
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Field Evaluation of Experimental "In-Street" Yield to Pedestrian Signs in Madison, Wisconsin

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of a "Yield To Pedestrians" sign in increasing driver compliance with Wisconsin's pedestrian rights laws.
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Bicycle/Pedestrian Safety Toolbox: Accessible Pedestrian Signals

Source: San Francisco Bay Area Metropolitan Transportation Commission
This document describes accessible pedestrian signals (ASPs), which supplement pedestrian signal indications with audible and/or vibrotactile information. For each pedestrian or bicycle safety tool,
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Community Toolbox

Source: The National Park Service
The National Park Service's Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance (RTCA) program helps communities work together to improve their special places. They've produced the Community Toolbox, a set of techniques for project development and community participation.
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Roadway Connectivity

Source: Victoria Transport Policy Institute
This chapter describes how improved roadway connectivity can reduce vehicle travel. The document details how to implementation connected streets and lists benefits, costs, case studies, and their impacts on travel and equity.
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Sacramento, CA: Pedestrian Safety Guidelines

Source: City of Sacramento
These guidelines focus on street crossing treatments at controlled and uncontrolled intersections, discussing tools such as pavement marking and signal options and giving attention to roadway design.
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Impact of Pedestrian Presence on Movement of Left-Turning Vehicles

Source: UC Berkeley Traffic Safety Center
This report discusses pedestrian-detection mechanisms that may be useful in intersection warning systems with thresholds for warnings that are adjusted for pedestrians when they are present or in the vicinity of the destination crosswalk.
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Kirkland's Experience with In-Pavement Flashing Lights at Crosswalks

Source: City of Kirkland
This paper describes Kirkland's experience with flashing crosswalks, including how the system works and how it is installed, effectiveness, response from the public and application criteria.
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Bikeway Planning Criteria and Guidelines

Source: Institute of Transportation and Traffic Engineering, State of California Business and Transportation Agency
Design criteria, specificationand guidelines for providing Class I and Class II bikeway facilities are presented.
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In the Dark: Seeing Bikes at Night

Source: Access
This paper looks at the difficulty in seeing bicyclists at night and ways to improve visibility. It discusses clothing patterns, perceived speed, and ways to make bicycling at night safer.
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An Evaluation of Flashing Crosswalks in Gainesville and Lakeland

Source: Florida Department of Transportation
This report describes evaluations of flashing crosswalks in Gainesville and Lakeland
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The Effects of Pedestrian Countdown Signals in Lake Buena Vista

Source: Florida Department of Transportation
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of countdown signals at intersections in Lake Buena Vista, Florida.
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Blind Pedestrians at Unfamiliar Signalized Intersections

Source: Transportation Research Board
This paper presents the results of part of the first phase of a study of crossings by pedestrians who are blind at unfamiliar complex signalized intersections.
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Intersection Level of Service

Source: Transportation Research Board
The Florida Department of Transportation (DOT) has initiated multimodal level-of-service (LOS) methodologies, including that for the bicycle travel mode.
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Development of Bicycle Compatability Index for Rural Roads in Nebraska

Source: Transportation Research Board
The objective of work described in this paper is to develop a rural equivalent of the Bicycle Compatability Index developed by the Federal Highway Administration.
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Streets in America Are Unsafe and Unforgiving For Kids

Source: Federal Highway Administration
Article by Pedestrian Safety Roadshow: Speeding cars, children darting into traffic, and streets without sidewalks place youth at risk on America's roads
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The Epidemic of Pediatric Traffic Injuries in South Florida

Source: American Journal of Public Health
The purpose of this study is to outline the distribution, determinants, and effects of pediatric pedestrian trauma (PPT) in our community.
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A Matched Case-Control Study Evaluating the Effectiveness of Speed Humps in Reducing Child Pedestrian Injuries

Source: American Journal of Public Health
A matched case-control study among Oakland residents younger than 15 years who had been hospitalized after being struck and injured by an automobile on a residential street.
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Bicycle / Pedestrian Safety Toolbox: Countdown Signals

Source: San Francisco Bay Area Metropolitan Transportation Commission
This resource descibes the use of devises that inform pedestrians about how much time is left to cross the street at signalized intersections. For each tool, the site describes the objective, applications,
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The Influence of Signs Prompting Motorists to Yield Before Marked Crosswalks on Motor Vehicle-Pedestrian Conflicts at Crosswalks with Flashing Amber

Source: Accident, Analysis, & Prevention
The effects of signs reading "STOP HERE FOR PEDESTRIANS" alone and in conjunction with advance stop lines on pedestrian safety at multilane crosswalks with pedestrian-activated amber flashing lights.
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Pedestrian Accidents in Marked and Unmarked Crosswalks

Source: Institute of Transportation Engineers
The main goal of this study is to conduct an examination of a group of pedestrian accidents at unprotected crosswalks in LA and determine the validity of the current practices.
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Evaluation of Innovative Bicycle Facilities

Source: Portland State University
Two innovative bicycle facilities installed in 2009 in downtown Portland by the City of Portland Bureau of Transportation (PBOT) were evaluated to understand how they are functioning on multiple levels.
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New Jersey: Statewide Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan, Phase 2

Source: New Jersey Department of Transportation
This plan provides clear guidance for the most effective use of Federal, State, and local resources to implement pedestrian and bicycle facilities. The stated goals and objectives are supported with proposed performance measures to determine the effectiveness and critical success factors.
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VTrans 2025: Virginia's Statewide Multimodal Long-Range Transportation Plan

Source: Commonwealth of Virginia Secretary of Transportation
Virginia's long-range transportation plan, called VTrans2025, is a blueprint for shaping the transportation future. It establishes a commonly held vision, goals, and objectives to guide and direct decision-
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Measuring Sprawl and Its Impact

Source: Smart Growth America
This report summarizes a three-year study by Ewing, Pendall, and Chen that attempted to define, measure and evaluate metropolitan sprawl and its impact. This report is the first in a series of findings to be issued based on the ongoing analysis of that work.
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Florida: Pedestrian Planning and Design Handbook

Source: Florida Department of Transportation
The plan presents guidelines, standards, and criteria for pedestrian planning and facilities. It is intended as a reference for any locality, agency, organization, group, or citizen interested in improving the walking environment.
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Georgia Pedestrian & Streetscape Guide

Source: Georgia Department of Transportation
The guide focuses on the design of pedestrian environments and streetscape facilities. It offers technical information on "best practices" that apply to situations encountered in project development.
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Vermont: Pedestrian and Bicycle Facility Planning and Design Manual

Source: Vermont Agency of Transportation
The manual assists agencies, organizations, and citizens with the planning, design, construction, and maintenance of pedestrian facilities in the variety of settings.
Read More >

 

Oregon: Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan

Source: Oregon Department of Tranportation
This is one of the first plans developed to promote walking. It is in-depth and informative, addressing various aspects of pedestrian planning.
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Bicycling and Walking in North Carolina, A Long Range Transportation Plan

Source: North Carolina Department of Transportation
The North Carolina pedestrian plan builds upon the state's long-range transportation plan, elaborating on the goals, focus areas, and programming specific to walking.
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North Carolina: Planning and Designing Local Pedestrian Facilities

Source: North Carolina Department of Transportation
The Local Pedestrian Facilities manual provides suggestions and guidelines for local planners and traffic engineers to increase pedestrian safety and friendliness.
Read More >

 

Washington: Pedestrian Facilities Guidebook

Source: Washington State Department of Transportation
The purpose of the Pedestrian Facilities Guidebook is to assist various agencies and organizations in pedestrian planning and encourage good design practices when developing these spaces.
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Pennsylvania: Pedestrian Planning and Design Guidelines

Source: Pennsylvania Department of Transportation
The Pedestrian Planning and Design Guidelines is one part of Statewide Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan for Pennsylvania. The design guidelines focus on best practices for sidewalks, intersections,
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District of Columbia Traffic Calming Policies and Guidelines

Source: District Department of Transportation
To reduce the negative impact of motor vehicle use and ensure overall safety, the District of Columbia Traffic Calming Policies and Guidelines provide a process for involving the public in implementing traffic calming measures.
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Oakland Chinatown Pedestrian Scramble: An Evaluation

Source: UC Berkeley Traffic Safety Center
This project evaluates whether the installation of a pedestrian scramble at a particular location in Oakland, California, increased pedestrian safety.
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Idaho Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation Plan

Source: Idaho Transportation Department
This document serves as a first step in establishing a statewide vision and comprehensive approach to pedestrian transportation planning.
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Wisconsin Pedestrian Policy Plan 2020

Source: Wisconsin Department of Transportation
The Pedestrian Plan provides a basic description of existing and emerging pedestrian needs over the next 20 years, with a set of recommendations to meet those needs. The Wisconsin Department of Transportaion'
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Denver, CO: Pedestrian Master Plan

Source: City and County of Denver
The plan establishes a city-wide pedestrian network. It uses a detailed development process that incorporates existing conditions assessment, existing plans, GIS studies, public involvement, and policy review.
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Marina, CA Pedestrian and Bicycle Master Plan

Source: Local Government Commission
This plan contains a clear outline and discussion of goals and action strategies. It offers a comprehensive street inventory and assessment of deficiencies.
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City of Cambridge, MA Environmental and Transportation Division

Source: City of Cambridge
The City of Cambridge's pedestrian program works to improve walking conditions in the city through engineering improvements, promotional activities, and educational project.
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Bellevue, WA: Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation Plan Update

Source: City of Bellevue Transportation Department
This is a policy-oriented document that aims to revise the 30-year plan. It presents key issues that have appeared during the implementation of pedestrian facilities, proving to be a helpful resource for localities considering such improvements.
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San Diego, CA: Planning and Designing for Pedestrians

Source: SANDAG, San Diego's Regional Planning Agency
These guidelines provide an extremely thorough look at how to plan and design for the pedestrian.
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Portland, OR: Pedestrian Master Plan

Source: City of Portland
The Master Plan outlines an action plan to achieve the city's pedestrian-oriented goals. To identify needed improvements, the plan used a rigorous identification process, including several opportunities for public input.
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Oregon Department of Transportation Bicycle and Pedestrian Program

Source: State of Oregon
This site provides infomation for local residents in addition to a variety of resources adaptable to general users, including design guides and standard drawings.
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Madison, WI: Pedestrian Transportation Plan

Source: City of Madison
This plan dedicates a significant section to the history and importance of pedestrian planning, as well as "thinking like a pedestrian."
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Chapel Hill, NC: Bicycle and Pedestrian Action Plan

Source: Town of Chapel Hill
This is a concise, general plan that provides a foundation for future pedestrian planning.
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Oakland, CA: Pedestrian Master Plan

Source: City of Oakland
The plan is a fine example of how to examine census information and pedestrian collision data, showing graphs on speed, location, time of day, age, etc.
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Cambridge, MA: Pedestrian Plan

Source: City of Cambridge
This is a beautiful and creative plan that addresses safety and walkability. It begins with general pedestrian issues and then moves on to specific action in Cambridge.
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Links to pedestrian issues and organizations provided by PEDS

Source: Pedestrians Educating Drivers on Safety, Inc. (PEDS)
This page provides links to both Atlanta-based and national organizations including neighborhood associations, transportation agencies, and advocacy groups.
Read More >

 

Predicting walkability

Source: NZ Transport Agency
This research provides a number of mathematical formulas for predicting the quality of the walking environment from the perspective of the user using operational and physical variables.
Read More >

 

Phoenix, AZ: Pedestrian Plan 2000

Source: Maricopa Association of Governments
The Maricopa Association of Governments plan promotes the accommodation of pedestrian travel throughout the low-density, automobile-oriented Phoenix metropolitan area.
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Seattle, WA: Regional Bicycle and Pedestrian Implementation Strategy for the Central Puget Sound Region

Source: Puget Sound Regional Council
This regional plan identifies more than 2,000 miles of needed bike lanes and oaths and pedestrian improvements around activity centers.
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Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Evaluation for the City of Emeryville at Four Intersections

Source: UC Berkeley Traffic Safety Center
This study attempts to predict the impacts of increasing volumes of vehicular, pedestrian, and bicycle traffic in Emeryville, California.
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Bike Plan Source Hot Topics provided by Tracy-Williams Consulting

Source: Tracy-Williams Consulting
The Bike Plan Source page provides articles on various topics relating to designing for bicycles.
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Boulder, CO: Transportation Master Plan

Source: City of Boulder
Pedestrian planning is fully integrated into the Boulder, CO Transportation Master Plan. The plan outlines modal split targets of 15 percent by bike and 24 percent by foot by 2020 and offers a variety of resources to transportation officials seeking to increase pedestrian travel.
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Pedestrian and Bicyclist Standards and Innovations in Large Central Cities

Source: Rudin Center for Transportation Policy and Management at NYU Wagner
The report reviews how best to accommodate the use of bicycles and walking while ensuring safety and sufficient mobility for motor vehicles for large central cities and provides examples of best practices in various cities nationally and internationally.
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Orlando Area Bicyclist Crash Study

Source: Metroplan Orlando
This report documents a study of 885 crashes between bicyclists and motorists in three counties in Florida, and identifies countermeasures.
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Give Elderly Pedestrians More Time To Cross Intersections

Source: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
The objective of this research was to determine the difficulties encountered at five intersections in Miami Beach by older pedestrians, and to generate recommendations that address these difficulties.
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A Study of Land Use, Transportation, Air Quality, and Health (LUTAQH) in King County, WA

Source: Lawrence Frank & Co., GeoStats, Inc, San Diego State University, University of Cincinnati
This research documents the impact of land use decisions and transportation investments and suggests strategies for allocating resources to encourage more compact, mixed use neighborhoods with more transportation choices.
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Reevaluating The Role Of Highway Expansion For Improving Urban Transportation

Source: Victoria Transport Policy Institute
This report investigates claims that highway capacity expansion is a cost effective and desirable solution to urban traffic congestion problems.
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Pedestrian Design Treatments

Source: Washington State Department of Transportation
These diagrams provide illustrative examples of different design treatments for intersections.
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Walkable Communities Library

Source: Walkable Communities, Inc.
This website provides a selection of resources including richly illustrated posters demostrating levels of service and treatment options, in addition to a variety of short papers, checklist, sample brochures and more,
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Pedestrian Grade Separation Locations: A Priority Ranking System

Source: New Jersey Department of Transportation
This report describes the development of a priority ranking system for locations whre the installation of a pedestrian grade separation is proposed.
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A Review of ITS-Based Pedestrian Injury Countermeasures

Source: UC Berkeley Traffic Safety Center
This report reviews previous scientific evaluation of red light enforcement cameras, illuminated walk signal push buttons, automated pedestrian detection systems for traffic signals, flashing crosswalk lights,
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Pennsylvania's Traffic Calming Handbook

Source: Pennsylvania Department of Transportation
"Pennsylvania's Traffic Calming Handbook" provides guidance for PennDOT when considering the use of traffic calming measures on State roadways in Pennsylvania.
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Lista de Condiciones para Caminar (Spanish Walkability Checklist)

Source: California Walk to School Day
This is a Spanish-language version of a Walkability Checklist, designed for parents and children to assess their route to school.
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An Intensive Pedestrian Safety Engineering Study Using Computerized Crash Analysis

Source: UC Berkeley Traffic Safety Center
This paper describes the technical procedures and the pedestrian countermeasure plan that resulted from an intensive study designed to analyze pedestrian injuries by zones (i.e., neighborhoods or districts)
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Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals

Source: Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals
National membership group for planners, engineers, advocates, academics working to improve conditions for bicycling and walking.
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Center for Livable Communities

Source: Local Government Commission
The Center for Livable Communities helps local governments and community leaders be proactive in their land use and transportation planning, and adopt programs and policies that lead to more livable and resource-
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Review and Comparison of NJ Traffic Signal Standards for Striping Schemes for Pedestrian Crossings

Source: Voorhees Transportation Policy Institute
This paper presents findings of enhanced and more innovative practices of traffic signal standards and striping schemes that could be applied to pedestrian crossings throughout New Jersey.
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Review of Guidelines and Standards for Accommodating Bicycles & Getting Bicycles Through Intersections

Source: Rutgers' Voorhees Transportation Policy Institute
This paper provides a general overview of cycling conditions and facilities used in New Jersey and compares them with conditions and facilities used in various other places where cycling is a more common mode for general travel and commuting.
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Road Diets: Fixing the Big Roads

Source: Walkable Communities
This paper explores the use of road diets to manage vehicular transportation.
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Pedestrian Safety Toolkit Resource Catalog

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
A guide for pedestrian safety activists to help them locate resources that fit their needs. Includes steps to starting a pedestrian safety program and a list of resources that will be needed. 80 pages.
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School Administrator's Guide to School Walk Routes and Student Pedestrian Safety

Source: Washington Traffic Safety Commission and Washington State DOT
The School Administrator's Guide to School Walk Routes and Student Pedestrian Safety provides resources to help develop, maintain, and improve school walk routes.
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Bicycle Parking Solutions

Source: New York Metropolitan Transportation Council
This guide provides information for indoor bicycle parking and the benefits of installing such facilities.
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The Influence of Traffic Calming Devices Upon Fire Vehicle Travel Times

Source: Portland Department of Transportation
The paper presents the results of a research project conducted by the City of Portland to measure the affects of both traffic circles and speed bumps on response times for various types of fire apparatus.
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Achieving Support for Traffic Mitigation from Elected Officials and Emergency Services

Source: City of Phoenix, Arizona, Institute of Transportation Engineers
This paper discusses techniques for achieving support from neighborhood residents, elected officials, emergency service providers, and more. Also provided is a brief introduction to Phoenix and a description of Phoenix'
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Environmental Factors Associated with Adults' Participation in Physical Activity.

Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
This paper provides an overview of the measures that have been used to assess environmental attributes and to review the patterns of environment-behavior associations that have thus far been identified.
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Completing the Streets for Transit

Source: National Complete Streets Coalition, Transportation Planning Capacity Building Program
The National Complete Streets Coalition is working to fully integrate multi-modal planning practices into everyday activities at transportation planning agencies.
Read More >

 

Appropriate Traffic Calming Techniques for Small Iowa Communities

Source: Shauna Hallmark
The purpose of the project was to evaluate traffic-calming treatments on the major road through small Iowa communities using either single-measure low-cost or gateway treatments.
Read More >

 

Status Report: Roundabouts

Source: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
This status report reviews studies concerning motorist and pedestrian safety in roundabouts.
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School Trip Safety and Urban Play Areas

Source: Federal Highway Administration
The purpose of the School Trip Safety and Urban Play Areas research project was to develop guidelines for the protection of young pedestrians (5 -14 yrs) walking to and from school, entering and leaving school buses,
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Evaluation of Bike Boxes at Signalized Intersections in Portland, Oregon, USA

Source:
This paper presents the results of a study of the effectiveness of the installed experimental traffic control devices and responses of users impacted by the installation of the bicycle boxes.
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Streets for People: Your Guide to Winning Safer and Quieter Streets

Source: Transportation Alternatives
Streets for Poeple is a tool kit of solutions for traffic problems around New York City, which can be applied elsewhere. The document includes information of crashes, highlights case studies, and reviews a number of traffic calming measures.
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Trail Construction and Maintenance Notebook

Source: United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Recreational Trails Program, Federal Highway Administration
This guide focuses on the basics of trail construction and maintenance, presented it in an easy-to-understand fashion, and oriented just to activities done in the field.
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Bike and Pedestrian Projects: Best Practices in New Jersey and Beyond

Source: Transportation Policy Institute
This presentation shows examples of good pedestrian and bicycle design in New Jersey. It discusses the need for pedestrian and bicycle facilities and the impact that walkable designs have on public health.
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Study of Optimal Travel Speed Limits for Shared Travel

Source: New Jersey Department of Transportation
This report summarizes the results of the work performed under the project Study of Optimal Travel Speed Limits for Shared Traffic.
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Bikeway Planning and Design

Source: California Highway Design
This section of a design manual provides various design information for bikeway planning and design. Topics covered include facility selection, design criteria, design speeds, suface tolerances, and more.
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Blueprint for Better Biking: 40 Ways to Get There

Source: Bicycle Transportation Alliance
This guide provides innovative solutions to substantially increase cycling in the Portland, Oregon, area.
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The Effects of Roundabouts on Pedestrian Safety

Source: The Southeastern Transportation Center
This paper examines pedestrian safety at roundabouts in the United States using a literature review along with case study analysis, statistical analysis, and simulation analysis to compare pedestrian safety at a conventional signalized intersection to a case study modern roundabout.
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The Influence of Vertical Illuminance on Pedestrian Visibility in Crosswalk

Source: 18th Biennial Transportation Research Board Visibility Symposium
This project investigates the required lighting levels for crosswalk illumination.
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Trail Intersection Design Handbook

Source: Florida Department of Transportation
This detailed handbook discusses design processes and principles of designing trail/roadway intersections.
Read More >

 

Infrastructure Solutions to Improve Pedestrian Safety

Source:
A comprehensive study aimed at conducting a detailed analysis of pedestrian accidents, a diagnosis of infrastructure problems, and assembling a collection of solutions.
Read More >

 

Traffic Calming Policy Manual

Source: Municipality of Anchorage Traffic Department
This manual provides a toolbox of traffic calming measures, their effectiveness and some basic guidelines for their implementation.
Read More >

 

Crosswalks at Roundabouts - Effects of Pedestrian Guard Rails on Utilization

Source:
The goal of this research is to examine the effects of guard rails at roundabouts and the conflicts that may arise.
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Emerging Technology for Roads, Crosswalks, and Pedestrian Safety Zones

Source: Transpo Industries, Inc.
This paper will discuss three innovative products that are specifically designed with pedestrians and motorcycle riders safety in mind.
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Automated Pedestrian Detection: Assessing Device Effectiveness and Potential Barriers to Acceptance in North America

Source:
This paper presents the findings of the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) Technical Committee on Automated Pedestrian Detection (APD).
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Reassessing the Relative Dangers of Walking and Motoring

Source: Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida
This paper proposes a new approach to risk measurement to reassess the relative injury risk from motor vehicles between walking and motoring.
Read More >

 

Role of Environmental Attributes in Explaining Pedestrian-Vehicular Crashes near Public Schools

Source: Transportation Research Board
This study analyzes pedestrian-vehicular crashes to determine any relationships that may exist between crashes near public schools and the physical and social attributes of these schools. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board,
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Countdown Signals for Pedestrians in Germany

Source:
A before-and-after-study was carried out covering traffic volume of cars and pedestrians, delay and acceptance of the signals after the installation of a countedown signal.
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Effects of Site Design on Pedestrian Travel in Mixed-Use, Medium-Density Environments

Source: Washington State Department of Transportation
This report examines whether high or low incidence of pedestrian travel in mixed-use, medium-density environments is due to site design characteristics, and specifically to presence of direct, continuous,
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High Resolution Modeling of Vehicle-Pedestrian Interactions for Estimating Pedestrian Risk at the Black Spots

Source:
The paper presents the SAFEPED - microscopic 3D simulation of the Black Spot dynamics.
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For Exercise in New York Futility, Push Button

Source: The New York Times
Worthy? This news article examines the use of push-buttons at crosswalks in New York City.
Read More >

 

Field Test of an Intelligent Transportation System for Pedestrians

Source: The Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport
This site reports on a field test of an Intelligent Transportation System device designed to aid wheelchair users.
Read More >

 

Safety of Vulnerable Road Users

Source: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, France
This report presents a review of the current safety situation of vulnerable road users in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries.
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Planning for the Utilization of Pedestrian Underpasses: A Case Study of Delhi, India

Source: Transportion Research Board
The objectives of this study are to identify and analyze the reasons for underutilization of underpasses in Delhi and to recommend possible modifications in their planning and design criteria. The full text may be purchased from the Transportation Research Board,
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Making Roads Safe for Pedestrians or Keeping them Out of the Way?

Source: Transportation Research Board
This historical look at pedestrian policies in Britain explores the development of footpaths, pedestrian crossings and road safety with the aim of providing an understanding of how this development can provide perspectives on current pedestrian policies.
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Estimating Cycling Demand For the Journey to Work or Study in West Edinburgh

Source: Transportation Research Board
This study develops a method to determine the propensity to cycle and provide an estimate of cycling demand in Edinburgh, Scotland, using discrete choice models. The full text may be purchased from the Transportation Research Board,
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City of Boulder, CO Transportation Planning

Source: City of Boulder
The site of the the Transportation Planning Department for the City of Boulder provides information to residents on the City plans and projects, as well as several incident reporting forms.
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Adversary Bicycle Policies and Their Impact on Urban Transporation in China

Source: Transportation Research Board
This manuscript provides an analysis of the origins of the negative opinions and related policies after presenting a brief review of bicycle development in China. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board,
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Oaklyn Borough, NJ Pedestrian/Bicycle Study

Source: Borough of Oaklyn, Camden County New Jersey
In this final report, Urbitran Associates, Inc. identifies strategies and recommendations for six locations in order to create adequate facilities for both bicyclists and pedestrians.
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Oriental Boulevard: Bicycle Lane Impacts

Source: New York City Department of Transportation
This report provides the results of a study of traffic patterns before and after bicycle lanes were installed along a section of road in New York City.
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St. Louis Regional Bicycle and Pedestrian Program

Source: East-West Gateway Council of Governments
The St. Louis Bicycle and Pedestrian Program includes projects to develop a level of service map for bicyclists and a citizen advisory committee.
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Walking the Walk: How Walkability Raises Home Values in U.S. Cities

Source: CEOs for Cities
This paper explores the connection between home values and walkability, as measured by the Walk Score algorithm.
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Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities in California

Source: California Department of Transportation
The primary purpose of this document is to provide Caltrans staff with a synthesis of information on non-motorized transportation.
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Real Intersection Design

Source: Voorhees Transportation Center at Rutgers University, New Jersey Department of Transportation Office of Bicycle and Pedestrian Programs
This report documents a workshop created to deal with poor intersection design in Ocean City.
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Bus Stop Style Guide

Source: PPK Environment & Infrastructure
This document is a style guide for bus stops in urban areas in New South Wales.
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Collection of Cycle Concepts

Source: Danish Road Directorate
"Collection of Cycle Concepts is part of the Danish Ministry of Transport's overall plan for promoting more and safer bicycle traffic. The purpose of the book is to present an overview, inspiration and motivation regarding bicycle traffic.
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Encouraging Walking: Advice to Local Authorities

Source: Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions: London
This report discusses the benefits of walking and policy decisions that can encourage people to get outside and walk.
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