Designers and engineers have a diverse array of design elements and ever-developing technologies at their disposal. Use this section of the website as a source for information on design and engineering tools that promote walkability and bikeability.
Costs for Pedestrian and Bicycle Infrastructure Improvements provides cost estimates for many of the treatments listed in this section. The summary report and database are a resource for researchers, engineers, planners, and the general public.
- Pedestrian Facilities
- Bicycle Facilities
- Traffic Calming
- Traffic calming is a way to design streets that uses physical and visual cues to encourage motorists to drive more slowly. If done well, traffic calming reduces traffic speeds, the number and severity of crashes, and noise levels. Traffic calming is self-enforcing; the design of the roadway results in the desired effect, without relying on compliance with traffic control devices such as signals and signs, and without relying on enforcement.
- The reason traffic calming is such a powerful and compelling tool is that it has proven to be so effective. Some of the effects of traffic calming, such as fewer and less severe crashes, are clearly measurable. Others, such as supporting community livability, are less tangible, but equally important.
- Alameda County, CA, has a helpful website that explains the different levels of traffic calming and the approval process for each level. It also gives implementation guidelines for each traffic calming measure used in the county.
- Curb Radius Reductions
- One-Way to Two-Way Conversions
- Traffic lane narrowing and reduction (road diet)
- Traffic Circles (Mini-Circles)
- Speed Humps/Tables
- Surface Treatments
- Partial and Full Street Closures
- Serpentine Design
- Design Resources
- The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 4th Edition (2012), is a comprehensive document for information about facilities. The AASHTO Web site is: http://www.transportation.org/
- For urban areas, the National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO) has developed the Urban Bikeway Design Guide to provide a resource of state-of-the-art bicycle facility design.
- NACTO’s Urban Street Design Guide focuses on the design of city streets and public spaces. It includes tools and tactics for making streets safer and more livable.
- The Model Street Design Manual is a free and customizable manual that focuses on all users and all modes, seeking to achieve balanced street design that accommodates cars while ensuring that pedestrians, cyclists and transit users can travel safely and comfortably.
- It is important that pedestrian facilities are designed to be accessible for all users. The U.S. Access Board’s Proposed Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities in the Public Right-of-Way includes accessibility guidelines for sidewalks, street crossings, and intersections. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has additional resources, including: Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part I of II: Review of Existing Guidelines and Practices (1999) and Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part II of II: Best Practices Design Guide (2001).