Advance Stop Lines/Yield Markings
An advance stop or yield line placed 20 to 50 feet ahead of the crosswalk can greatly reduce the likelihood of a multiple-threat crash at unsignalized midblock crossings. The line encourages drivers to stop back far enough so a pedestrian can see if a second motor vehicle is not stopping and, if necessary, be able to take evasive action. A setback of 30 feet for the line has been found to be a good distance for most purposes. Also, parking should be restricted between the stop or yield line and the crosswalk to allow for better visibility.
The advance stop or yield line should be supplemented with "Stop (or Yield) Here for Pedestrians" signs (R1-5, R1-5a, R1-5b, or R1-5c) to alert drivers where to stop to let a pedestrian cross. One study found that use of a "sign alone reduced conflicts between drivers and pedestrians by 67 percent, and with the addition of an advanced stop or yield line, this type of conflict was reduced by 90 percent compared to baseline levelsâ€� (Van Houten & Malenfant, 1992). The decision to use an advance stop or yield line depends on state law. Most states require drivers to yield to pedestrians; about a dozen states require drivers to stop for pedestrians.
Studies have found that advance yield markings at midblock crossings can be particularly useful when combined with signs and beacons, such as the Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon or rectangular rapid flash beacon (RRFB).
Improves visibility of pedestrians to motorists, and helps prevent the multiple threat crash that occurs at crosswalks on multilane roadways.
- Effectiveness depends on motorist compliance with the marked stop line.
- If placed too far in advance of the crosswalk, motorists might ignore the line.
When installed as part of new paving or during repaving projects, the cost to install lines is approximately $200 to $800 per intersection. Otherwise the cost is approximately $1000 to $2000. Adding signage will cost approximately $200 each. See the Cost Report sections on the Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon and RRFB for these costs.