More Countermeasures and Safety Effectiveness Examples



"Shifting Streets" Glossary

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Documents terminology and definitions for "Shifting Streets" interventions types.
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City Leadership in a Pandemic

Source: NACTO
Report captures new playbooks to protect essential workers, adapted streets for safety and mobility, and preparations for an equitable and sustainable recovery.
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Neighborhood Slow Zones

Source: New York City DOT
Describes countermeasures and evaluation used to slow traffic in identified neighborhoods.
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Demonstration of Promising Practices to Increase Proper Bicycle Helmet Use in Middle School Youth

Source: Center for Education and Research in Safety and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Shares behavioral strategies to increase the helmet use of middle school children.
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International Design Guidance

Source: Pedestrian Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
To improve conditions for bicycling and walking in the United States, it is often helpful to consider advancements in nonmotorized transportation from around the world. The PBIC has compiled a listing of international bicycling and walking resources,
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Funding

Source: Pedestrian Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Funding for bicycle and pedestrian activities is administered through Government Agencies and Non-government Sources, such as private not-for profit groups and advocacy organizations.
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Application of Pedestrian Crossing Treatments for Streets and Highways

Source: NCHRP
Compiles information on the state of existing practices regarding application of pedestrian crossing improvements, and does not produce new guidance. The report includes a survey of state departments of transportation (
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Improving Pedestrian Safety at Unsignalized Crossings

Source: Transit Cooperative Research Program and National Cooperative Highway Research Program
TCRP Report 112/NCHRP Report 562: Improving Pedestrian Safety at Unsignalized Crossings will be of interest to state, county, and city traffic engineers; transit agencies; roadway designers; and urban planners,
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Indianapolis Cultural Trail

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center; Context Sensitive Solutions
City leaders wanted to make it easier for people to visit the Indianapolis's cultural districts, which were disconnected from the heart of downtown and didn't get the attention they merited. In a city with a successful linear park and trail system,
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Regional Rail-Trail

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The American Tobacco Trail (ATT) is a 22+ mile shared-use path that begins in the City of Durham and extends through the Research Triangle region of North Carolina. The trail is located in a former railroad right-
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Crossing an Arterial through an Offset Intersection: Bicycle-Only Center-Turn Lane

Source: City of Portland, Oregon
This treatment successfully addressed three criteria: it offered a refuge for crossing bicyclists and allowed them to cross one direction of traffic at a time; it maintained all automotive turning movements;
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Evaluation of Bicycle-Related Roadway Measures: A Summary of Available Research

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
This document represents an effort to compile all known research on the effect of the bicycle safety countermeasures contained in BIKESAFE.
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Costs for Pedestrian and Bicycle Infrastructure Improvements

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC), Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Active Living Research Program, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This document is intended to provide meaningful estimates of infrastructure costs for pedestrian and bicycle treatments in states and cities across the country.
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Nebraska Avenue Road Diet

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
A variety of countermeasures were used to increase safety in one of the most dangerous roadway corridors in Tampa, Florida.
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School Zone Traffic Calming

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Through routine analysis of pedestrian safety around Portland's public schools, the City's Traffic Calming program identified one elementary school as a high priority for pedestrian safety measures.
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Smart Traffic Signal System in Northern Virginia

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The community of Reston, Virginia, implemented five countermeasures to improve pedestrian safety through the city.
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Signs and Signals

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
In response to high pedestrian collision rates, Miami-Dade County spent a little over 1 million dollars on the new countermeasures and found significant improvements in pedestrian safety.
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Pedestrian Infrastructure

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
A combination of pedestrian safety countermeasures was found to have a significant impact on pedestrian safety in San Francisco.
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Exclusive Pedestrian Phasing

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The City of Beverly Hills implemented an exclusive pedestrian signal at busy downtown intersections to greater reduce the number of pedestrian and vehicle conflicts.
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Pedestrian Safety

Source: Global Road Safety Partnership
This report discusses the magnitude of pedestrian deaths and injuries, key risk factors, and how to assess an area's pedestrian safety situation.
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Small Town Traffic Calming

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Residents of Oneonta pursued a pedestrian-friendly alternative to urban renewal projects that had resulted in narrow sidewalks, heavy vehicle traffic, and the demolition of historic buildings in the downtown area.
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Slow Zones

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The implementation of the Neighborhood Slow Zone program in the neighborhood with the highest number of pedestrian injuries and fatalities in New York City.
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Seventh Avenue Traffic Calming

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
A number of engineering countermeasures were deployed to reduce the problems of cut-through traffic and speeding in this coastal residential community.
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Livernois Avenue Corridor Project

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The City of Detroit and Michigan Department of Transportation improved pedestrian safety on Livernois Avenue through the use of a HAWK beacon and median.
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Granite Street Traffic Calming

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Neighborhood concern about speeding was addressed through the use of traffic calming measures.
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Harold Street Traffic Calming

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Traffic calming on SE Harold in Portland, Oregon, has been very successful and neighborhood livability has been enhanced.
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Berkshire Street Traffic Calming

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The City of Cambridge chose the Berkshire/York Street area to demonstrate the benefits of traffic calming for addressing speeding motorists.
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Main Street Roundabout

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
A roundabout offers an improved pedestrian safety environment at one Montpelier, Vermont intersection.
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Access to Transit

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
To encourage pedestrian traffic and ensure pedestrians' safety, WMATA built new sidewalks and crosswalks at Metro stations in the Washington, D.C. metro area.
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Pedestrian Crossing Infrastructure

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Las Vegas, Nevada, addressed a high rate of pedestrian crashes using "Turning Vehicles Yield to Pedestrians" signs, advance yield markings, and in-roadway knockdown signs to produce significant improvements in motorist yielding behavior.
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Leading Pedestrian Interval

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
St. Petersburg, Florida introduced the leading pedestrian interval to reduce the number of conflicts between pedestrians and turning vehicles.
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Curb Extensions in Rural Village

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
A more pedestrian-oriented design was desired in downtown Fort Plain, New York, and curb extentions were installed as a result.
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Advance Yield Markings

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
A solution to reduce multiple-threat collisions at unsignalized pedestrian crossings.
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Wall Street Revitalization

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The redevelopment of pedestrian-friendly Wall Street in downtown Asheville, NC, in the 1980s and 1990s.
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Trail Intersection Improvements

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The Springwater Corridor pedestrian and bicycle trail in Portland, Oregon, was the site of a series of safety improvements at locations where the trail intersected with local streets and driveways.
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Pedestrian Safety Initiative

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The use of a strategic plan in Montgomery County, Maryland that featured measurable strategies as a blueprint for data-driven action to deploy resources to best impact pedestrian safety.
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Old Town Improvements

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The City of Eureka Planning and Engineering Departments and concerned citizens worked together to make the Old Town District more pedestrian friendly
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Daylighting

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Hoboken, New Jersey's experience finding a creative, low-cost solution to improve pedestrian safety at crosswalks.
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Bridgeport Way: The Role of a Major Arterial in Town-Making

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The redevelopment of an arterial road in University Place, Washington to reduce crashes and contribute to the local economy.
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Greensboro's Downtown Greenway: Successful Revitalization through Active Transportation

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The Downtown Greenway provided a transportation solution for accessing downtown, a place for public art, public park space, and an important link between socially diverse neighborhoods.
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Improving Pedestrian Conditions on a High Traffic Arterial

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
San Francisco's 19th Avenue/Park Presidio Boulevard is a major multi-use transportation corridor with many issues including heavy traffic, difficult pedestrian crossings, and unwelcoming design features.
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Safe Streets for Seniors

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
In New York City, adults aged 65 and older make up 12 percent of the city's population, but accounted for 39 percent of its pedestrian fatalities between 2002 and 2006.
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Pedestrian Safety Guidelines

Source: Carson Area Metropolitan Planning Organization (CAMPO)
The primary goal of these guidelines is to offer recommendations on how to enhance the pedestrian safety within the CAMPO area.
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Pedestrian Safety Report to Congress

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report was a response to the SAFETEA-LU, Public Law 109-59, Section 2003(e), which requires the Secretary of Transportation to produce a comprehensive report on pedestrian safety.
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Infrastructure, programs, and policies to increase bicycling: an international review

Source: Preventive Medicine
The objective of this paper is to assess existing research on the effects of various interventions on levels of bicycling.
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CRC Index: Compatibility of Roads for Cyclists in Rural and Urban Fringe Areas

Source: Transportation Research Board 2003 Annual Meeting
This research aims to build a safety and compatibility index for rural and urban fringe areas, using a combination of parameters (ex. speed, traffic, and layout).
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Walking and Cycling International Literature Review

Source: Victoria Department of Transport
This report presents the findings from a literature review aiming to help professionals understand barriers to walking and cycling as well as infrastructure and policy supports for nonmotorized transportation.
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Planning Complete Streets for an Aging America

Source: AARP
This report offers refinements to intersection design treatments recommended by the Federal Highway Administration in its Design Handbook for Older Drivers and Pedestrians.
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Making Crosswalks Safer for Pedestrians: Application of a Multidisciplinary Approach to Improve Pedestrian Safety at Crosswalks in St. Petersburg, Florida

Source: Center for Urban Transportation Research
Overview of the multidisciplinary program implemented in St. Petersburg, Florida to increase motorists yielding to pedestrians, reduce pedestrian-motor vehicle, and increase pedestrians' feelings of comfort and safety in crosswalks.
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Guidance Memorandum on Consideration and Implementation of Proven Safety Countermeasures

Source: Federal Highway Association
FHWA memo of action on consideration and implementation of proven safety countermeasures.
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Pedestrian- and Transit-Friendly Design

Source: Florida Department of Transportation and American Planning Association
A quick guide to pedestrian needs that must be considered during development. Attention is given to the placement of parks, buildings, transit stops, and sidewalks that create a network to connect these amenities.
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Development of Boulder's Multimodal System

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Boulder has leveraged natural advantages with a significant commitment, well-designed plans, and resourceful follow-through to build a multimodal system and institutionalize the accommodation of bicycling and walking on many levels.
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Quantifying Countermeasure Effectiveness

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
By analyzing pedestrian and bicyclist crash data, Metropolitan Orlando gained an understanding of safety needs and made countermeasure recommendations to correct them.
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Bicycle and Pedestrian Safety and Education Program

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The Pima County-Tucson Bicycle and Pedestrian Safety and Education Program aimed to provide public education on pedestrians and bicyclists, safety training, as well as infrastructure improvements and program evaluation.
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Route 71 Pedestrian Tunnel at Monmouth University

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
An underpass constructed at a high-volume street at Monmouth University eliminated growing pedestrian-vehicle conflicts.
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Bicycle Boulevards

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Significant traffic growth leads Emerville, California to consider ways to create a safe throughway for bicyclists.
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Downtown Orlando Transportation Plan

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The Bicycle and Pedestrian section's objective is to provide a secure, convenient, efficient, comfortable, and welcoming network for bicyclists and pedestrians.
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Traffic Calming and Crime Prevention

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Many communities in the U.S. have been designed to accommodate automobiles, not cyclists and pedestrians. Traffic calming can help make bicycling and walking more comfortable and neighborhoods more livable.
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New Jersey Governor's Pedestrian Safety Initiative

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The governor of New Jersey starts a Pedestrian Safety Initiative to reduce teh number of pedestrian fatalities across the state.
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Method of Improving Pedestrian Safety Proactively with Geographic Information Systems

Source: Transportation Research Record
"The proactive data integration technique developed in this study was applied to pedestrian safety problems on a college campus, aiding the process of planning and implementing various countermeasures related to education,
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A Guide for Reducing Collisions at Signalized Intersections

Source: National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board
This document provides strategies that can be employed to reduce the number of collisions at signalized intersections.
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City of Boulder Crosswalk Compliance Studies & Treatment Implementation

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
The City of Boulder conducts a crosswalk compliance study to determine the effectiveness of five different alternative treatments, and encourage walking.
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Evaluation of Pedestrian Data Needs and Collection Efforts

Source: Transportation Research Board, University of Utah Department of Environmental Engineering
This paper discusses the extent to which pedestrian demand, behavior, and facilities data can assist in the study of pedestrian safety issues, reviews data collection strategies, suggests some data collection improvements,
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Highway Design Handbook for Older Drivers and Pedestrians

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This project updated, revised, and expanded the scope of the Older Driver Highway Design Handbook published by FHWA in 1998.
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Selecting Roadway Design Treatments to Accommodate Bicycles

Source: Federal Highway Administration
Presents a methodology for selecting the most appropriate type of on- road bicycle facility.
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Active Community Environments Initiative (ACES)

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Active Community Environments Initiative (ACES) promotes walking, bicycling, and the development of accessible recreation facilities.
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Environmental and Policy Determinants of Physical Activity in the United States

Source: American Journal of Public Health
This study examined (1) descriptive patterns in perceived environmental and policy determinants of physical activity and (2) associations between these factors and behavior. The full text can be obtained through the American Journal of Public Health at the link below.
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Index for Assessing Pedestrian Safety at Intersections

Source: Transportation Research Board
This study attempts to develop a safety index that will allow engineers, planners, and other practitioners to prioritize intersection crosswalks with respect to pedestrian safety. This resource can be purchased through the Transportation Research Board,
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Citizen's Accessibility Evaluation Tool

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Hillsborough County MPO develops a pedestrian accessibility evaluation tool to identify problem areas in a specific high-volume corridor.
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Traffic Calming Guidelines

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
Sacramento adopts guidelines to assist the public, city staff, consultants, and developers in creating a safer environment for pedestrians and bicyclists by identifying traffic calming devices and steps for implementation.
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Traffic Calming to Enhance Pedestrian Safety

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
New York village uses a roundabout, colored crosswalks, curb extensions, and other treatments to improve pedestrian safety.
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WALKArlington Pedestrian Initiative

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
WALKArlington initiative provides new signs, signals, and Light Emitting Diode (LED) crosswalks in an attempt to increase walking and reduce pedestrian crashes in rapidly urbanizing Arlington County.
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Bringing Life to Transportation

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)
City of Tucson uses European signal systems -- PELICAN, HAWK, TOCAN, and PUFFIN -- and education program to improve pedestrian safety and fatality rate.
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State and Regional Agencies Work with Community Members in Charleston

Source: National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report on Transportation and Health
A partnership for health in Charleston, South Carolina, uses a citizen survey to help determine and ensure preferred allocation of transportation funds to pedestrian and bicycle facilities.
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Case Study No. 2: The Training Needs of Transportation Professionals Regarding the Pedestrian and Bicyclist

Source: Federal Highway Administration
At the time of the publication of this paper, most American college transportation planning and engineering programs paid attention only to the automobile mode, with an elective course offered on transit design.
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Spectrum of Prevention: A Model for Planning Public Health Interventions Traumatic Brain Injury Prevention Helmet Use and Bicycle Safety

Source: California Department of Health Services
This presentation provides information on traumatic brain injury prevention through bicycle helmet use and bicycle safety.
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Guidelines and Recommendations to Accommodate Older Drivers and Pedestrians

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This project updated, revised, and expanded the scope of the Older Driver Highway Design Handbook published by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) in 1998.
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Pedestrian Design Treatments

Source: Washington State Department of Transportation
These diagrams provide illustrative examples of different design treatments for intersections.
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Pedestrian Access to Roundabouts: Assessment of Motorists' Yielding to Visually Impaired Pedestrians and Potential Treatments to Improve Access

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report describes two related studies intended to address double-lane roundabout accessibility issues for visually impaired pedestrians.
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Is it Safe to Walk? Neighborhood Safety and Security Conditions and Their Effects on Walking

Source: Journal of Planning Literature
This article focuses on a particular environmental variable, the safety of neighborhood surroundings, and explores how it is influencing physical activity. This resource can be purchased through the Sage Journals Online,
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Pedestrian Planning and Design Guidelines

Source: New Jersey Department of Transportation
This guide discusses the importance of sidewalks in pedestrian mobility and safety. It defines appropriate facilities and design criteria to accomodate and foster pedestrian movement.
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A Review of the Impacts of the Towaway Reporting Threshold on a Highway Safety Program

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This study reviews the potential impacts of a towaway reporting threshold on the North Carolina Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) listings and on the locations and types of crash patterns identified on collision diagrams by field engineers.
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A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Pedestrians

Source: National Cooperative Highway Research Program
The National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 500, Volume 10: A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Pedestrians provides strategies that can be employed to reduce the number of collisions involving pedestrians.
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Eighth United States-Japan Workshop on Advanced Technology in Highway Engineering

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report summarizes the 8th U.S.- Japan Workshop on Pedestrian and Nighttime Safety. Focus areas included general trends in the U.S. and Japan, funding, disabled and elderly pedestrians, Geographic Information Systems (
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The Effects of Traffic Calming Measures on Pedestrian and Motorist Behavior

Source: Highway Safety Administration
Whereas earlier studies usually focused on vehicle speeds and volumes, this study looked at motorist yielding and pedestrian crossing behavior, in addition to vehicle speeds.
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Sacramento, CA: Pedestrian Safety Guidelines

Source: City of Sacramento
These guidelines focus on street crossing treatments at controlled and uncontrolled intersections, discussing tools such as pavement marking and signal options and giving attention to roadway design.
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Pedestrian Safety in Native America

Source: Federal Highway Administration
Since American Indians have the highest rates of pedestrian injury and fatality in the country, this study was performed to typify crashes among American Indians in the United States.
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Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool (PBCAT)

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool (PBCAT) is a crash typing software product intended to assist state and local pedestrian/bicycle coordinators, planners and engineers with improving walking and bicycling safety through the development and analysis of a database containing details associated with crashes between motor vehicles and pedestrians or bicyclists.
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International Synthesis Report: Australia

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This report summarizes Australian research and activities regarding pedestrian safety.
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Bicycle / Pedestrian Safety Toolbox: Pedestrian Pushbutton Treatments

Source: San Francisco Bay Area Metropolitan Transportation Commission
This document discusses traffic control devices to facilitate safe pedestrian crossings. For each tool, the site explains objectives, applications, target popluation, advantages, disadvantages, crash type,
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How to Develop a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
How to Develop a Pedestrian Safety Action Plan offers guidance that can help municipalities determine and solve their pedestrian safety concerns, from identifying pedestrian safety problems to obtaining funding and enacting change.
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BIKESAFE: Bicycle Countermeasure Selection System

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
BIKESAFE is intended to provide practitioners with the latest information, available for improving the safety and mobility of those who bicycle. It is an expert system that allows the user to select appropriate countermeasures or treatments to address specific problems.
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North Carolina: Planning and Designing Local Pedestrian Facilities

Source: North Carolina Department of Transportation
The Local Pedestrian Facilities manual provides suggestions and guidelines for local planners and traffic engineers to increase pedestrian safety and friendliness.
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Vermont: Pedestrian and Bicycle Facility Planning and Design Manual

Source: Vermont Agency of Transportation
The manual assists agencies, organizations, and citizens with the planning, design, construction, and maintenance of pedestrian facilities in the variety of settings.
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Florida: Pedestrian Planning and Design Handbook

Source: Florida Department of Transportation
The plan presents guidelines, standards, and criteria for pedestrian planning and facilities. It is intended as a reference for any locality, agency, organization, group, or citizen interested in improving the walking environment.
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An Evaluation of High-Visibility Crosswalk Treatment

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The overall objective was to evaluate the effect of a novel illuminated overhead crosswalk sign and high-visibility ladder style crosswalk markings on driver and pedestrian behavior at nonsignalized intersections in Clearwater,
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The Effects of Innovative Pedestrian Signs at Unsignalized Locations: A Tale of Three Treatments

Source: Federal Highway Administration
This paper is part of a national-level research effort to evaluate the operational and safety effects of various pedestrian treatments, and summarizes past research in this field.
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An Evaluation of Illuminated Pedestrian Push Buttons in Windsor, Ontario

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This paper evaluates illuminated push buttons at four intersections in Windsor, Ontario. The research reported here is part of a larger national effort to evaluate the operational and safety effects of various pedestrian treatments:
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Evaluation of a Combined Bicycle Lane/Right Turn Lane in Eugene, Oregon

Source: Federal Highway Administration
Innovative, on-street bicycle treatments are now routinely being implemented. This is the third in a series of reports for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) pertaining to evaluation of these innovative bicycling treatments.
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A Comparative Analysis of Bicycle Lanes Versus Wide Curb Lanes

Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
This document provides a comparison between Bike Lanes and Wide Curve Lanes, specifically in regards to bicycle and automobile interactions at intersections, and offers recommendations.
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Pedestrian Synthesis Report

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The following document summarizes research on pedestrian safety in the United States with a focus on crash characteristics and the safety effects of various roadway features and traffic-control devices;
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PEDSAFE: Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System is intended to provide practitioners with the latest information available for improving the safety and mobility of those who walk. The online tools provide the user with a list of possible engineering,
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