Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities - Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes

TCRP Report 95, Chapter 16
Source: Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP)

From a transportation and community perspective, objectives of pedestrian and bicycle facility improvements have evolved to include numerous aspects of providing viable and safe active transportation options for all ages, abilities, and socioeconomic groups. Pedestrian and bicycle facilities appear overall to benefit the full spectrum of society perhaps more broadly than any other provision of transportation. A challenge in non-motorized transportation (NMT) benefit analysis is to adequately account for all the different forms in which pedestrian and bicycle facilities provide benefit.

In this report, new as well as synthesized research is presented. This chapter examines pedestrian and bicyclist behavior and travel demand outcomes in a relatively broad sense. It covers traveler response to NMT facilities both in isolation and as part of the total urban fabric, along with the effects of associated programs and promotion. It looks not only at transportation outcomes, but also recreational and public health outcomes. This chapter focuses on the travel behavior and public health implications of pedestrian/bicycle areawide systems; NMT-link facilities such as sidewalks, bicycle lanes, and on-transit accommodation of bicycles; and node-specific facilities such as street-crossing treatments, bicycle parking, and showers. Discussion of the implications of pedestrian and bicycle "friendly" neighborhoods, policies, programs, and promotion is also incorporated.

The public health effects coverage of this chapter, and associated treatment of walking and bicycling and schoolchild travel as key aspects of active living, have been greatly facilitated by participation in the project by the National Center for Environmental Health -- part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This pivotal CDC involvement has included supplemental financial support for the Chapter 16 work effort. It has also encompassed assistance with research sources and questions, and draft chapter reviews by individual CDC staff members in parallel with TCRP Project B-12A Panel member reviews (see "Chapter 16 Author and Contributor Acknowledgments").

TCRP Report 95: Chapter 16, Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities will be of interest to transit, transportation, and land use planning practitioners; public health professionals and transportation engineers; land developers, employers, and school administrators; researchers and educators; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation, planning, and public health agencies; MPOs; and local, state, and federal government agencies. This chapter is complemented by illustrative photographs provided as a "Photo Gallery" at the conclusion of the report. In addition, PowerPoint slides of the photographs in full color are available on the TRB website at

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