RELATED TOPICS: E-bikes, Bike Share, Equity, Connected Multimodal Networks

The potential health, environmental, and congestion relief benefits of e-scooters, e-bikes, and station-based and dockless bike share transportation systems are promising as a complement to existing modes of travel. They also provide "micromobility" and an affordable, low emissions alternative to driving. Many communities see possibilities in micromobility to help extend the transit ridership shed and support first/last mile trips to transit connections. As with all new innovations, there is much to learn about safe implementation, compliance, equity considerations, and infrastructure planning and design to support emerging forms of transportation and technology.

Since 2017, a proliferation of start-ups distributed electric kick-scooters for use in shared mobility systems across the U.S., generating millions of trips per year. Electric bicycles provide new opportunities for flexible personal travel and also pose challenges for safety, regulation, and planning. Best practices and new policies are continually evolving and may be specific to location or context.


The Basics of Micromobility and Related Motorized Devices for Personal Transport provides typology and framework that classifies and defines vehicles and emerging "micromobility" devices for integrating into transportation systems.

E-Scooter Management in Midsized Cities in the United States documents practices, challenges, and opportunities related to micromobility, specifically e-scooters, in nine midsized US cities.

SAE Taxonomy and Classification of Powered Micromobility Vehicles provides a commonality of terms, definitions, and classifications of powered micromobility vehicles consistent with current industry practice.

How and Where Should I Ride This Thing? "Rules of the Road" for Personal Transportation Devices (PTDs) identifies existing PTD regulations across 176 jurisdictions and presents recommendations for rules of the road to balance safety for all road users.

Shared Micromobility in the U.S.: 2018 reports comprehensive count of all shared micromobility in the U.S. including average trip duration, distances, and prices per ride.

Remix Three-Part Info Brief on Micromobility covers policies, city needs for mobility data, and equitable access.

Shared Micromobility Playbook explores core components of a comprehensive shared micromobility policy for local governments to consider.

Dockless Electric Kick Scooter Systems: What we know and don't know presents overview of current e-scooter landscape on the national level.

American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators: Electric Dockless Scooters Whitepaper looks at regulatory challenges and includes considerations for cities and examples of recent regulatory activities.

More Resources >



Micromobility Injury Coding Poster categorizes injuries related to emerging micromobility devices for improved injury surveillance and for patients in a healthcare setting.

USDOT Bureau of Transportation Statistics website and interactive map documents the rapid growth of bikeshare and e-scooter systems across the country from 2015-2019.

Smart Cities Dive: Mapping the Impact of Dockless Vehicles maps cities exploring and implementing shared mobility.

Measuring Equitable Access to New Mobility provides overview of dockless system in Washington, District of Columbia.

Injuries Associated with Standing Electric Scooter Use explores types of injuries associated with e-scooters and the characteristics and behaviors of injured patients.

Dockless Electric Scooter-Related Injuries Study serves as the first epidemiological study to conduct interviews with injured e-scooter riders and identifies risk factors associated with injuries.

Micromobility in Cities: A History and Policy Overview includes case studies on shared and electric bikes and scooters from cities across the country, with a history of micromobility and recommendations for local leaders.

More Examples >