Personal Delivery Devices (PDDs) Legislative Tracker (Version 1.0)

Source: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC)

Personal Deliver Devices (PDDS) are on the forefront of autonomous driving technology and making delivery services more efficient. Also referred to as Sidewalk Delivery Robots, Delivery Robots, and Sidewalk Robots, PDDs are designed to deliver goods using transportation networks such as sidewalks, crosswalks, and bike lanes. Without a driver on board, goods for transport can be secured and accessed by the recipient digitally through an app or delivery code.

Currently PDD operations are not regulated under motor vehicle codes, leaving oversight to individual states. As manufacturers continue to innovate, state legislatures across the country are drafting legislation in an attempt to catch up to the rapidly evolving technology. State laws often address topics such as physical and operational limits, areas of operation, human oversight, and right of way. This PDD State Legislative Tracker provides up-to-date State Legislative Bill information and then the PDD characteristics and operations included within these bills.

Table 1: State Legislative Bill Information for PDDs*

Table 2: PDD Characteristics and Operations Specified in State Bill*

*Blank fields where information is not provided means that the legislation did not address this aspect of PDD.

If you have updates or corrections to share for either table above, please contact Kristin Blank.

Please use proper attribution when using or linking to data contained within this dataset.
Suggested citation: Clamann, M., Podsiad, K., & Cover, A. (2023 May). Personal Delivery Devices (PDDs) Legislative Tracker. Available from

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